How to format your references using the Pervasive and Mobile Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pervasive and Mobile Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T.P. Lodge, Materials science. A unique platform for materials design, Science. 321 (2008) 50–51.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.L. Heilbron, W.F. Bynum, 1903 and all that, Nature. 421 (2003) 15–18.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Rosu, D.E. Libuda, A.M. Villeneuve, Robust crossover assurance and regulated interhomolog access maintain meiotic crossover number, Science. 334 (2011) 1286–1289.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Citroni, M. Ceppatelli, R. Bini, V. Schettino, Laser-induced selectivity for dimerization versus polymerization of butadiene under pressure, Science. 295 (2002) 2058–2060.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Shafer, V. Vovk, Probability and Finance: It’s Only a Game!, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
F. Maes, ed., Marine Resource Damage Assessment: Liability and Compensation for Environmental Damage, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Pieschl, E. Stahl, R. Bromme, Adaptation to Context as Core Component of Self-Regulated Learning: The Example of Complexity and Epistemic Beliefs, in: R. Azevedo, V. Aleven (Eds.), International Handbook of Metacognition and Learning Technologies, Springer, New York, NY, 2013: pp. 53–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pervasive and Mobile Computing.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, Life On Earth Might Have Started Inside Comet Craters, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Organizational Culture: Techniques Companies Use to Perpetuate or Change Beliefs and Values, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L.C. Thigpen, Building a concrete foundation: A mixed-method study of teaching styles and the use of concrete, representational, and abstract mathematics instruction, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ford Fessenden; Kate, L.S.C. Reporting, Long Island Aid Comes at Westchester’s Expense, New York Times. (2007) 14WC5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePervasive and Mobile Computing
AbbreviationPervasive Mob. Comput.
ISSN (print)1574-1192
ScopeComputer Science (miscellaneous)
Applied Mathematics

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