How to format your references using the Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eicken, H., 2013. Arctic sea ice needs better forecasts. Nature 497, 431–433.
A journal article with 2 authors
Evan, G.I., Vousden, K.H., 2001. Proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in cancer. Nature 411, 342–348.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wiedenheft, B., Sternberg, S.H., Doudna, J.A., 2012. RNA-guided genetic silencing systems in bacteria and archaea. Nature 482, 331–338.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
St Maurice, M., Reinhardt, L., Surinya, K.H., Attwood, P.V., Wallace, J.C., Cleland, W.W., Rayment, I., 2007. Domain architecture of pyruvate carboxylase, a biotin-dependent multifunctional enzyme. Science 317, 1076–1079.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sauter, M., 2013. 3G, 4G and Beyond-Bringing Networks, Devices and the Web Together. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Spike, J.P., 2016. A Casebook in Interprofessional Ethics: A Succinct Introduction to Ethics for the Health Professions, 1st ed. 2016. ed, SpringerBriefs in Ethics. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Aronoff, C.E., McClure, S.L., Ward, J.L., 2011. Developing Effective Successors, in: McClure, S.L., Ward, J.L. (Eds.), Family Business Succession: The Final Test of Greatness. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, pp. 33–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. These Headphones Transmit Sound Into Your Skull [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Intellectual Property: Federal Agency Efforts in Transferring and Reporting New Technology (No. GAO-03-47). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyer, T.H., 2008. Removal of natural organic matter by anion exchange: Multiscale experimentation and mathematical modeling (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J., 2017. Donated Slides From the Met Get a Second Life, and Viewing. New York Times A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eicken, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Eicken, 2013; Evan and Vousden, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Evan and Vousden, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (St Maurice et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics
AbbreviationPerspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst.
ISSN (print)1433-8319
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

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