How to format your references using the Disease-a-Month citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Disease-a-Month. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rapley C. Climate science: Time to raft up. Nature. 2012;488(7413):583-585.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burns JA, Cuzzi JN. Planetary science. Our local astrophysical laboratory. Science. 2006;312(5781):1753-1755.
A journal article with 3 authors
Joughin I, Smith BE, Medley B. Marine ice sheet collapse potentially under way for the Thwaites Glacier Basin, West Antarctica. Science. 2014;344(6185):735-738.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schwartz CE, Wright CI, Shin LM, Kagan J, Rauch SL. Inhibited and uninhibited infants “grown up”: adult amygdalar response to novelty. Science. 2003;300(5627):1952-1953.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reinke P. Inorganic Nanostructures. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
Wieferink A. Retargetable Processor System Integration into Multi-Processor System-on-Chip Platforms. (Meyr H, Leupers R, eds.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Burriss ET, Alici G, Spinks GM, McGovern S. Modelling and Performance Enhancement of a Linear Actuation Mechanism Using Conducting Polymers. In: Cetto JA, Filipe J, Ferrier J-L, eds. Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics: Revised and Selected Papers from the International Conference on Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics 2009. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011:63-78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Disease-a-Month.

Blog post
Andrew D. A Hidden Code In Our DNA Explains How New Pieces Of Genes Are Made. IFLScience. Published January 10, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Services for the Elderly: Longstanding Transportation Problems Need More Federal Attention. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCafferty B. Chalk Talk. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Solving a Dress-Design Sudoku. New York Times. May 20, 2010:E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDisease-a-Month
AbbreviationDis. Mon.
ISSN (print)0011-5029
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles