How to format your references using the Disease-a-Month citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Disease-a-Month. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shalala DE. Retrospective. Bernadine Healy (1944-2011). Science. 2011;333(6051):1836.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xiang Y, Kobilka BK. Myocyte adrenoceptor signaling pathways. Science. 2003;300(5625):1530-1532.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stairs IH, Lyne AG, Shemar SL. Evidence for free precession in a pulsar. Nature. 2000;406(6795):484-486.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ludwig A, Debus L, Lieckfeldt D, et al. When the American sea sturgeon swam east. Nature. 2002;419(6906):447-448.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hellesland J, Challamel N, Casandjian C, Lanos C. Reinforced Concrete Beams, Columns and Frames. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Régnier-Loilier A, ed. The Contemporary Family in France: Partnership Trajectories and Domestic Organization. Vol 5. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Lehner M, Tichler R, Steinmüller H, Koppe M. Methanation. In: Tichler R, Steinmüller H, Koppe M, eds. Power-to-Gas: Technology and Business Models. SpringerBriefs in Energy. Springer International Publishing; 2014:41-61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Disease-a-Month.

Blog post
Davis J. First Sample Of Ancient DNA Extracted From An Extinct Tropical Creature. IFLScience. Published February 20, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Amtrak: Management and Accountability Issues Contribute to Unprofitability of Food and Beverage Service. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheat BR. Effects of Intercropping Switchgrass in Managed Pine Stands on Plant Communities and White-Tailed Deer Forage Production. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. The Pulitzer at 100. New York Times. July 20, 2017:C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDisease-a-Month
AbbreviationDis. Mon.
ISSN (print)0011-5029
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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