How to format your references using the Disease-a-Month citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Disease-a-Month. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Demographic shifts. Nature. 2001;414(6862):3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Govers F, Angenent GC. Plant science. Fertility goddesses as Trojan horses. Science. 2010;330(6006):922-923.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sampat BN, Shadlen KC, Amin TM. Intellectual property. Challenges to India’s pharmaceutical patent laws. Science. 2012;337(6093):414-415.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nahler NH, White JD, Larue J, Auerbach DJ, Wodtke AM. Inverse velocity dependence of vibrationally promoted electron emission from a metal surface. Science. 2008;321(5893):1191-1194.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang ZG. Internal Combustion Processes of Liquid Rocket Engines. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Schacknow PN, Samples JR, eds. The Glaucoma Book: A Practical, Evidence-Based Approach to Patient Care. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Kumar M, Chauhan R. Present Status, Challenges and Management of the Japanese Coastal Zone Environment. In: Ramanathan AL, Bhattacharya P, Dittmar T, Prasad MBK, Neupane BR, eds. Management and Sustainable Development of Coastal Zone Environments. Springer Netherlands; 2010:73-84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Disease-a-Month.

Blog post
Luntz S. Scientists Have Sequenced The Genome Of Iron-Breathing Microbes. IFLScience. Published April 25, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security: Systematic Planning Needed to Optimize Resources. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Atchley D. Interventions, Perceptions of Accommodations, and Motivating Factors Impacting the Achievement and Successful Mainstreaming Transition of English Language Learners. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Scouting Report. New York Times. October 28, 2010:E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDisease-a-Month
AbbreviationDis. Mon.
ISSN (print)0011-5029
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles