How to format your references using the IEEE Internet Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Internet Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. J. Hogan, “Cosmology. The beginning of time,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5563, pp. 2223–2225, Mar. 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. L. Shuster and B. P. Weiss, “Martian surface paleotemperatures from thermochronology of meteorites,” Science, vol. 309, no. 5734, pp. 594–600, Jul. 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. E. Jackson, M. Holcombe, and F. L. W. Ratnieks, “Trail geometry gives polarity to ant foraging networks,” Nature, vol. 432, no. 7019, pp. 907–909, Dec. 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. J. Vandergoes et al., “Regional insolation forcing of late Quaternary climate change in the Southern Hemisphere,” Nature, vol. 436, no. 7048, pp. 242–245, Jul. 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. M. Carroll, C. Bowyer-Crane, F. J. Duff, C. Hulme, and M. J. Snowling, Developing Language and Literacy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2011.
An edited book
U. K. Chakraborty, Ed., Computational Intelligence in Flow Shop and Job Shop Scheduling, vol. 230. in Studies in Computational Intelligence, vol. 230. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Williams, “The Importance of Concepts for Science,” in Crossroads: History of Science, History of Art: Essays by David Speiser, vol. II, K. Williams, Ed., Basel: Springer, 2011, pp. 53–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Internet Computing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Hunt Was Right To Resign – Nobel Laureates Must Set An Example To Their Field, Not Bring Shame,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Federal Research: Lessons Learned From SEMATECH,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-92-283, Sep. 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
F. Toosi, “Decision Analysis Techniques for Adult Learners: Application to Leadership,” Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Michael Kelly With, “THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Vietnam War; Campaign Focus on Vietnam Reviving Debates of the 60’s,” New York Times, p. A1, Oct. 09, 1992.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Internet Computing
AbbreviationIEEE Internet Comput.
ISSN (print)1089-7801
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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