How to format your references using the Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt, T. (2000). NASA pays the price of its dash for Mars. Nature, 404(6778), 535.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stuart, D. R., & Fagnou, K. (2007). The catalytic cross-coupling of unactivated arenes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5828), 1172–1175.
A journal article with 3 authors
Behringer, D. C., Butler, M. J., & Shields, J. D. (2006). Ecology: avoidance of disease by social lobsters. Nature, 441(7092), 421.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jin, S., Mavoori, H., Bower, C., & van Dover, R. B. (2001). High critical currents in iron-clad superconducting MgB2 wires. Nature, 411(6837), 563–565.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kracke, E.-A., & Lodde, K. (2011). Leitfaden Straßenbrücken. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Chazottes, J.-R. (2005). Dynamics of Coupled Map Lattices and of Related Spatially Extended Systems (B. Fernandez, Ed.; Vol. 671). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Holweg, M., & Bicheno, J. (2016). The Reverse Amplification Effect in Supply Chains. In K. S. Pawar, H. Rogers, A. Potter, & M. Naim (Eds.), Developments in Logistics and Supply Chain Management: Past, Present and Future (pp. 52–58). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, November 28). Cause For Astronaut Sight Problems Discovered. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Examination of the Pricing of a Negotiated Fixed-Price Incentive Contract Awarded on a Noncompetitive Basis (No. 103244). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cook, E. J. (2013). Older Americans Act of 1965, Title III: A policy analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davidson, A. (2013, May 2). Boom, Bust or What? New York Times, MM28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reichhardt, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Reichhardt, 2000; Stuart & Fagnou, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stuart & Fagnou, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Behringer et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Jin et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives
ISSN (print)0907-676X
ISSN (online)1747-6623
ScopeLinguistics and Language

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