How to format your references using the Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
von Boehmer, H. (2006). Immunology. Thoracic thymus, exclusive no longer. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5771), 206–207.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roll-Mecak, A., & Vale, R. D. (2008). Structural basis of microtubule severing by the hereditary spastic paraplegia protein spastin. Nature, 451(7176), 363–367.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin, Z., Owen, A. B., & Altman, R. B. (2004). Genetics. Genomic research and human subject privacy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5681), 183.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Samatey, F. A., Imada, K., Nagashima, S., Vonderviszt, F., Kumasaka, T., Yamamoto, M., & Namba, K. (2001). Structure of the bacterial flagellar protofilament and implications for a switch for supercoiling. Nature, 410(6826), 331–337.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Qiu, R. G. (2014). Service Science. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Curtin, R. T., & Reynolds, P. D. (Eds.). (2009). New Firm Creation in the United States: Initial Explorations with the PSED II Data Set (Vol. 23). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Schumann, R. G., & Gandorfer, A. (2014). Pathophysiology of Vitreo-Macular Interface. In A. Girach & M. D. de Smet (Eds.), Diseases of the Vitreo-Macular Interface (pp. 43–53). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 19). 3D Printed Body Parts Go Mainstream. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Health Care: Home Care Experiences of Families With Chronically Ill Children (No. HRD-89-73). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cox, D. C. (2008). A measurement of the neutral current neutrino-nucleon elastic cross section at MiniBooNE (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, September 23). The Air Down There Soothes Feet. New York Times, p. E9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (von Boehmer, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Roll-Mecak & Vale, 2008; von Boehmer, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roll-Mecak & Vale, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Lin, Owen, & Altman, 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Samatey et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives
ISSN (print)0907-676X
ISSN (online)1747-6623
ScopeLinguistics and Language

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