How to format your references using the Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spiegelhalter, D. J. (2014). Statistics. The future lies in uncertainty. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6194), 264–265.
A journal article with 2 authors
Largeron, M., & Fleury, M.-B. (2013). Chemistry. Bioinspired oxidation catalysts. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6115), 43–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chakraborty, S., Yanchulova, P., & Thiemens, M. H. (2013). Mass-independent oxygen isotopic partitioning during gas-phase SiO2 formation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6157), 463–466.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
D’Ardenne, K., McClure, S. M., Nystrom, L. E., & Cohen, J. D. (2008). BOLD responses reflecting dopaminergic signals in the human ventral tegmental area. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5867), 1264–1267.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lhabitant, F.-S. (2004). Hedge Funds. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Hanus, M. (Ed.). (2007). Practical Aspects of Declarative Languages: 9th International Symposium, PADL 2007, Nice, France, January 14-15, 2007. Proceedings (Vol. 4354). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Filus, J. K., & Filus, L. Z. (2008). Some Alternative Approaches to System Reliability Modeling. In H. Pham (Ed.), Recent Advances in Reliability and Quality in Design (pp. 101–135). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, July 31). Plants Use Neurotransmitter To Signal Stress. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). TSA Acquisitions: Further Actions Needed to Improve Efficiency of Screening Technology Test and Evaluation (GAO-16-117). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramirez, M. (2015). Support groups for caregivers of older adults with end stage renal disease: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2000, September 17). With Young Rhythm in His Bones, A Drummers’ Drummer Turns 80. New York Times, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spiegelhalter, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Largeron & Fleury, 2013; Spiegelhalter, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Largeron & Fleury, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Chakraborty et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (D’Ardenne et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives
ISSN (print)0907-676X
ISSN (online)1747-6623
ScopeLinguistics and Language

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