How to format your references using the Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Broer, D. J. (2014). Applied physics: A new view on displays. Nature, 511(7508), 159–160.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell, N., & Grayson, M. (2014). Index 2014 Global. Nature, 515(7526), S49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lieberman, D., Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (2007). The architecture of human kin detection. Nature, 445(7129), 727–731.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mann, M. E., Woodruff, J. D., Donnelly, J. P., & Zhang, Z. (2009). Atlantic hurricanes and climate over the past 1,500 years. Nature, 460(7257), 880–883.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bauldry, W. C. (2009). Introduction to Real Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bomze, I. M. (2010). Nonlinear Optimization: Lectures given at the C.I.M.E. Summer School held in Cetraro, Italy, July 1-7, 2007 (V. F. Demyanov, R. Fletcher, T. Terlaky, G. Di Pillo, & F. Schoen, Eds.; Vol. 1989). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Nguyen, C. N., Pham, T. H., & Tran, V. H. (2015). DC Programming and DCA Approach for Resource Allocation Optimization in OFDMA/TDD Wireless Networks. In H. A. Le Thi, N. T. Nguyen, & T. V. Do (Eds.), Advanced Computational Methods for Knowledge Engineering: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Computer Science, Applied Mathematics and Applications - ICCSAMA 2015 (pp. 49–56). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 17). Canary In The Gold King Mine: Legacy Of Abandoned Mines Means More Spills. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Federally Leased Vehicles: Agencies Should Strengthen Assessment Processes to Reduce Underutilized Vehicles (GAO-16-136). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nasiriamini, S. (2010). The need for adaptive network application architectures [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. (2016, April 5). Recognizing the Artifice in Artificial Intelligence. New York Times, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Broer, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Broer, 2014; Campbell & Grayson, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Campbell & Grayson, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Lieberman et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mann et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives
ISSN (print)0907-676X
ISSN (online)1747-6623
ScopeLinguistics and Language

Other styles