How to format your references using the Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lohmann, K. J. (2010). Q&A: Animal behaviour: Magnetic-field perception. Nature, 464(7292), 1140–1142.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams, B. J., & Jorge y Jorge, M. del C. (2008). Aztec arithmetic revisited: land-area algorithms and Acolhua congruence arithmetic. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5872), 72–77.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gestwicki, J. E., Crabtree, G. R., & Graef, I. A. (2004). Harnessing chaperones to generate small-molecule inhibitors of amyloid beta aggregation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5697), 865–869.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lamers, M. H., Perrakis, A., Enzlin, J. H., Winterwerp, H. H., de Wind, N., & Sixma, T. K. (2000). The crystal structure of DNA mismatch repair protein MutS binding to a G x T mismatch. Nature, 407(6805), 711–717.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Möller, G. (2013). Geotechnik. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Fang, A. C. (2015). Text Genres and Registers: The Computation of Linguistic Features (J. Cao, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gao, Z., Stephan, F., & Zilles, S. (2015). Combining Models of Approximation with Partial Learning. In K. Chaudhuri, C. Gentile, & S. Zilles (Eds.), Algorithmic Learning Theory: 26th International Conference, ALT 2015, Banff, AB, Canada, October 4-6, 2015, Proceedings (pp. 56–70). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, April 22). Man Pronounces Name of Longest Protein. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Commercial Activities in Schools: Use of Student Data is Limited and Additional Dissemination of Guidance Could Help Districts Develop Policies (GAO-04-810). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simonsen, A. E. (2010). Risk and resilience: Girls’ experiences navigating space and relationships in a secure residential facility [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowen, T. (2015, February 19). Stuck in Line? Think of What You Stand to Gain. New York Times, BU3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lohmann, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Lohmann, 2010; Williams & Jorge y Jorge, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Williams & Jorge y Jorge, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Gestwicki et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lamers et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives
ISSN (print)0907-676X
ISSN (online)1747-6623
ScopeLinguistics and Language

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