How to format your references using the Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thomas, D. J. (2004). Evidence for deep-water production in the North Pacific Ocean during the early Cenozoic warm interval. Nature, 430(6995), 65–68.
A journal article with 2 authors
Perea, G., & Araque, A. (2007). Astrocytes potentiate transmitter release at single hippocampal synapses. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5841), 1083–1086.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rieping, W., Habeck, M., & Nilges, M. (2005). Inferential structure determination. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5732), 303–306.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sibly, R. M., Barker, D., Denham, M. C., Hone, J., & Pagel, M. (2005). On the regulation of populations of mammals, birds, fish, and insects. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5734), 607–610.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lippold, J. C. (2015). Welding Metallurgy and Weldability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
North, K., & Varvakis, G. (Eds.). (2016). Competitive Strategies for Small and Medium Enterprises: Increasing Crisis Resilience, Agility and Innovation in Turbulent Times (1st ed. 2016). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hodgson, T. K., & Braunstein, G. D. (2007). Physiological Effects of Androgens in Women. In R. Azziz, J. E. Nestler, & D. Dewailly (Eds.), Androgen Excess Disorders in Women: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Other Disorders (pp. 49–62). Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 23). World First: Scientists Modify The Genomes Of Human Embryos. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Transportation Research: Opportunities for Improving the Oversight of DOT’s Research Programs and User Satisfaction with Transportation Statistics (GAO-06-917). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Forget, M. A. (2012). Tumor Angiogenesis is all Tied up in Tie2-Expressing Macrophages [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goldstein, J., & Schwirtz, M. (2013, October 11). U.S. Accuses 2 Rabbis of Kidnapping Husbands for a Fee. New York Times, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thomas, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Perea & Araque, 2007; Thomas, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Perea & Araque, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Rieping et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sibly et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives
ISSN (print)0907-676X
ISSN (online)1747-6623
ScopeLinguistics and Language

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