How to format your references using the Hague Journal on the Rule of Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hague Journal on the Rule of Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kratter KM (2015) Star formation: Sibling rivalry begins at birth. Nature 518:173–174
A journal article with 2 authors
Jinnah S, Jungcurt S (2009) Global biological resources. Could access requirements stifle your research? Science 323:464–465
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin T-W, Dai C-S, Hung K-C (2014) High energy density asymmetric supercapacitor based on NiOOH/Ni3S2/3D graphene and Fe3O4/graphene composite electrodes. Sci Rep 4:7274
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Blein T, Pulido A, Vialette-Guiraud A, et al (2008) A conserved molecular framework for compound leaf development. Science 322:1835–1839

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Padgett S (2014) Profiling the Fraudster. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Pavone P (2009) CT Evaluation of Coronary Artery Disease. Springer, Milano
A chapter in an edited book
Patel KN (2015) Hyperthyroidism and Thyroiditis. In: Pasieka JL, Lee JA (eds) Surgical Endocrinopathies: Clinical Management and the Founding Figures. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 25–33

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hague Journal on the Rule of Law.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017) Gravitational Waves Might Test For Extra Dimensions. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Financial Literacy: Overview of Federal Activities, Programs, and Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Douet C (2010) The influence of an overseas trip to France on high school students studying French, four years after graduation. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J (2017) Beguiling Tales Of Women And Change. New York Times C6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kratter 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Jinnah and Jungcurt 2009; Kratter 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jinnah and Jungcurt 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Blein et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleHague Journal on the Rule of Law
ISSN (print)1876-4045
ISSN (online)1876-4053

Other styles