How to format your references using the Hague Journal on the Rule of Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hague Journal on the Rule of Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Solomon SC (2007) Planetary science. Hot news on Mercury’s core. Science 316:702–703
A journal article with 2 authors
Sachs MS, Geballe AP (2002) Biochemistry. Sense and sensitivity--controlling the ribosome. Science 297:1820–1821
A journal article with 3 authors
Gagné J-P, Rouleau M, Poirier GG (2012) Structural biology. PARP-1 activation--bringing the pieces together. Science 336:678–679
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kiehl S, Herkt SC, Richter AM, et al (2014) ABCB4 is frequently epigenetically silenced in human cancers and inhibits tumor growth. Sci Rep 4:6899

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lyshevski SE (2005) Engineering and Scientific Computations Using MATLAB®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Casoli F (2007) The New Worlds: Extrasolar Planets. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Haddad SAP, Serdijn WA (2009) Optimal State Space Descriptions. In: Serdijn WA (ed) Ultra Low-Power Biomedical Signal Processing: An Analog Wavelet Filter Approach for Pacemakers. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 75–94

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hague Journal on the Rule of Law.

Blog post
Carpineti C (2017) Watch How These Elephants Respond To A Swarm Of Bees. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations: Many Federal Programs Fund Transportation Services, but Obstacles to Coordination Persist. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Owsiak NK (2008) Teacher quality accountability measures: Perceptions of degree and direction of influence on university -based teacher education programs. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2012) State Bonds In Jeopardy As Tobacco Cash Fades. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Solomon 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Sachs and Geballe 2002; Solomon 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sachs and Geballe 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Kiehl et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleHague Journal on the Rule of Law
ISSN (print)1876-4045
ISSN (online)1876-4053

Other styles