How to format your references using the Hague Journal on the Rule of Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hague Journal on the Rule of Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Szoka F (2008) Molecular biology. The art of assembly. Science 319:578–579
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang T, Shadlen MN (2007) Probabilistic reasoning by neurons. Nature 447:1075–1080
A journal article with 3 authors
Beaber JW, Hochhut B, Waldor MK (2004) SOS response promotes horizontal dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. Nature 427:72–74
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Liang X, Zhao J, Dong L, Xu K (2013) Unraveling the origin of exponential law in intra-urban human mobility. Sci Rep 3:2983

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoskins BJ, James IN (2014) Fluid Dynamics of the Midlatitude Atmosphere. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester
An edited book
Lamattina L, García-Mata C (eds) (2016) Gasotransmitters in Plants: The Rise of a New Paradigm in Cell Signaling. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Ahmed M, Singh VK, Upadhyay RS (2012) Brassica Rhizosphere-Microbe Interactions and Their Role in Phytoremediation. In: Anjum NA, Ahmad I, Pereira ME, et al. (eds) The Plant Family Brassicaceae: Contribution Towards Phytoremediation. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 139–152

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hague Journal on the Rule of Law.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Doctors have cleared second baby of HIV. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Technology Transfer: Number and Characteristics of Inventions Licensed by Six Federal Agencies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zanulabe Din MO (2017) Engineered Synchrony of Bacterial Lysis and its Applications. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF (2005) With Emphasis on Safety, Playgrounds Aren’t for All. New York Times 14LI1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Szoka 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Yang and Shadlen 2007; Szoka 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yang and Shadlen 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Liang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleHague Journal on the Rule of Law
ISSN (print)1876-4045
ISSN (online)1876-4053

Other styles