How to format your references using the Personalized Medicine in Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Personalized Medicine in Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gavaghan H. New UK legislation aids fight against discrimination. Nature 2000;405:716–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jin Q, He SY. Role of the Hrp pilus in type III protein secretion in Pseudomonas syringae. Science 2001;294:2556–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Loudet JC, Hanusse P, Poulin P. Stokes drag on a sphere in a nematic liquid crystal. Science 2004;306:1525.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gauvin L, Panisson A, Cattuto C, Barrat A. Activity clocks: spreading dynamics on temporal networks of human contact. Sci Rep 2013;3:3099.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vanclef J. The Wealth Code 2.0. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Basu B, Chakravarty SR, Chakrabarti BK, Gangopadhyay K, editors. Econophysics and Economics of Games, Social Choices and Quantitative Techniques. Milano: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Gustafson SJ, Sigal IM. Uncertainty Principle and Stability of Atoms and Molecules. In: Sigal IM, editor. Mathematical Concepts of Quantum Mechanics, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 41–5.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Personalized Medicine in Psychiatry.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Corkscrew Penises And Reinforced Vaginas – An Evolutionary Arms Race. IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Higher Education: Verification Helps Prevent Student Aid Payments to Ineligible Noncitizens. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Steinberg J. The Social Construction of Beauty: Body Modification Examined Through the Lens of Social Learning Theory. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. A Clown and a Correspondent Join the Global Elite. New York Times 2017:A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePersonalized Medicine in Psychiatry
AbbreviationPers. Med. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)2468-1717

Other styles