How to format your references using the Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maienschein, J. 2000. “Old wine in new bottles.” Nature, 407 (6800): 21.
A journal article with 2 authors
Insel, T. R., and B. N. Cuthbert. 2015. “Medicine. Brain disorders? Precisely.” Science, 348 (6234): 499–500.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meyer, J. C., M. Paillet, and S. Roth. 2005. “Single-molecule torsional pendulum.” Science, 309 (5740): 1539–1541.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Vila-Costa, M., R. Simó, H. Harada, J. M. Gasol, D. Slezak, and R. P. Kiene. 2006. “Dimethylsulfoniopropionate uptake by marine phytoplankton.” Science, 314 (5799): 652–654.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knight, H. J. 2012. Patent Strategy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Doleželová-Velingerová, M., and R. G. Wagner (Eds.). 2014. Chinese Encyclopaedias of New Global Knowledge (1870-1930): Changing Ways of Thought. Transcultural Research – Heidelberg Studies on Asia and Europe in a Global Context. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wimmer, R., N. Jansen, A. Vorpahl, E. Ábrahám, J.-P. Katoen, and B. Becker. 2013. “High-Level Counterexamples for Probabilistic Automata.” Quantitative Evaluation of Systems: 10th International Conference, QEST 2013, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 27-30, 2013. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, K. Joshi, M. Siegle, M. Stoelinga, and P. R. D’Argenio, eds., 39–54. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. “Fly Through Space with this Awesome Interactive Video.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Federal Student Aid: Timely Performance Plans and Reports Would Help Guide and Assess Achievement of Default Management Goals. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Emerson, J. D. 2001. “The Jambalaya That is My Brain.” Doctoral dissertation. Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. 2010. “Fitting More Into That Bag.” New York Times, June 3, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maienschein 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Insel and Cuthbert 2015; Maienschein 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Insel and Cuthbert 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Vila-Costa et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction
ISSN (print)1943-4162
ISSN (online)1943-4170

Other styles