How to format your references using the Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yamamoto, A. (2000). “Crowded universities cramp more than just students’ style.” Nature, 404(6773), 13.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weiss, J., and Marsan, D. (2003). “Three-dimensional mapping of dislocation avalanches: clustering and space/time coupling.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5603), 89–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahn, K. H., Lookman, T., and Bishop, A. R. (2004). “Strain-induced metal-insulator phase coexistence in perovskite manganites.” Nature, 428(6981), 401–404.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Naqvi, N. H., Rudrauf, D., Damasio, H., and Bechara, A. (2007). “Damage to the insula disrupts addiction to cigarette smoking.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5811), 531–534.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Padmanabhan, T. R., and Bala Tripura Sundari, B. (2005). Design Through Verilog HDL. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sun, Y. (2010). Strain Effect in Semiconductors: Theory and Device Applications. (S. E. Thompson and T. Nishida, eds.), Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Köppel, H. (2007). “Nonadiabatic Multimode Dynamics at Symmetry-Allowed Conical Intersections.” Quantum Dynamics of Complex Molecular Systems, Springer Series in Chemical Physics, D. A. Micha and I. Burghardt, eds., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 113–133.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). “Real Crisis In Psychology Isn’t That Studies Don’t Replicate, But That We Usually Don’t Even Try.” IFLScience, IFLScience, <; (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Railroad Safety: FRA Needs to Correct Deficiencies in Reporting Injuries and Accidents. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coppock, J. E. (2017). “Optical and Magnetic Measurements of a Levitated, Gyroscopically Stabilized Graphene Nanoplatelet.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W., and Cooper, M. (2011). “Faltering City Testing Its Vow To Pensioners.” New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yamamoto 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Weiss and Marsan 2003; Yamamoto 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weiss and Marsan 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Naqvi et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction
ISSN (print)1943-4162
ISSN (online)1943-4170

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