How to format your references using the Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen, A. (2012). “The hard facts.” Nature, 485(7400), S50-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vinson, V., and Pennisi, E. (2011). “Synthetic biology. The allure of synthetic biology. Introduction.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6047), 1235.
A journal article with 3 authors
Foran, E., Weiner, S., and Fine, M. (2013). “Biogenic fish-gut calcium carbonate is a stable amorphous phase in the gilt-head seabream, Sparus aurata.” Scientific reports, 3, 1700.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chendrimada, T. P., Finn, K. J., Ji, X., Baillat, D., Gregory, R. I., Liebhaber, S. A., Pasquinelli, A. E., and Shiekhattar, R. (2007). “MicroRNA silencing through RISC recruitment of eIF6.” Nature, 447(7146), 823–828.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sundararajan, D. (2015). Discretewavelet Transform. John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
England, D., Schiphorst, T., and Bryan-Kinns, N. (Eds.). (2016). Curating the Digital: Space for Art and Interaction. Springer Series on Cultural Computing, Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Scita, G., Disanza, A., Frittoli, E., Palamidessi, A., and Sigismund, S. (2013). “Endocytosis in the Spatial Control of Polarised Cell Functions.” Vesicle Trafficking in Cancer, Y. Yarden and G. Tarcic, eds., Springer, New York, NY, 75–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). “Top Ten Newly-Discovered Species.” IFLScience, IFLScience (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). ADP Budget: SSA’s Information Technology Systems Budget Requests and Obligations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hilmey, D. G. (2006). “Synthesis and Study of Heteroatomic Spirocyclic Scaffolds.” Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Reinhart, M. K. (2011). “Kathy Mabry and Tom Prost.” New York Times, ST18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maxmen 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Maxmen 2012; Vinson and Pennisi 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vinson and Pennisi 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Chendrimada et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction
ISSN (print)1943-4162
ISSN (online)1943-4170

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