How to format your references using the Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hill, M. (2015). “Perspective: Be clear about the real risks.” Nature, 525(7570), S14.
A journal article with 2 authors
Haga, S. B., and Venter, J. C. (2003). “Genetics. FDA races in wrong direction.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5632), 466.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kennedy, H. J., Crawford, A. C., and Fettiplace, R. (2005). “Force generation by mammalian hair bundles supports a role in cochlear amplification.” Nature, 433(7028), 880–883.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bais, H. P., Vepachedu, R., Gilroy, S., Callaway, R. M., and Vivanco, J. M. (2003). “Allelopathy and exotic plant invasion: from molecules and genes to species interactions.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5638), 1377–1380.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pollak, P. (2011). Fine Chemicals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Artmann, G. M., and Chien, S. (Eds.). (2008). Bioengineering in Cell and Tissue Research. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim, K.-R., Kim, D.-H., and Kim, H.-J. (2013). “Magnetic Resonance Wireless Power Transmission Using a LLC Resonant Circuit for a Locomotion Robot’s Battery Charging.” Intelligent Robotics and Applications: 6th International Conference, ICIRA 2013, Busan, South Korea, September 25-28, 2013, Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, J. Lee, M. C. Lee, H. Liu, and J.-H. Ryu, eds., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 31–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015). “There Are Still Active Volcanoes On Venus.” IFLScience, IFLScience, <> (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). Weather Satellites: User Views on the Consequences of Eliminating a Civilian Polar Orbiter. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Toothaker, R. D. (2014). “A phenomenological study of millennial students and traditional pedagogies.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wasik, J. F. (2016). “Choosing a Place to Settle Down in the Age of Fitbit.” New York Times, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hill 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Haga and Venter 2003; Hill 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Haga and Venter 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Bais et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction
ISSN (print)1943-4162
ISSN (online)1943-4170

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