How to format your references using the International Studies Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Studies Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. (2000) Ocean Researchers Dive to Deep-Sea Stations. Nature 406: 449.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simmons, Leigh W., and Benjamin Roberts. (2005) Bacterial Immunity Traded for Sperm Viability in Male Crickets. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309: 2031.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krug, Andrew Z., David Jablonski, and James W. Valentine. (2009) Signature of the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction in the Modern Biota. Science (New York, N.Y.) 323: 767–771.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Airan, Raag D., Kimberly R. Thompson, Lief E. Fenno, Hannah Bernstein, and Karl Deisseroth. (2009) Temporally Precise in Vivo Control of Intracellular Signalling. Nature 458: 1025–1029.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, Sheng, and Yong Liu. (2011) Modeling and Simulation for Microelectronic Packaging Assembly. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd.
An edited book
Bezhanishvili, Guram, Ed. (2014) 4 Leo Esakia on Duality in Modal and Intuitionistic Logics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Kingston, Jeffrey H. (2013) Educational Timetabling. In Automated Scheduling and Planning: From Theory to Practice, Studies in Computational Intelligence, edited by A. Sima Uyar, Ender Ozcan, and Neil Urquhart. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Studies Perspectives.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. (2016) Meet Bowie, The Rescue Koala With Different Colored Eyes. IFLScience. Available at: (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997) Aviation Security: Posting Notices at Domestic Airports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sidwell, Mackenzie Denise. (2017) Indirect Measures as Predictors of Social Skills Observed through Means of Direct Observation. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Coll, Susan. (2017) Size Matters. New York Times: BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain 2000; Simmons and Roberts 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Simmons and Roberts 2005)
  • Three authors: (Krug, Jablonski, and Valentine 2009)
  • 7 or more authors: (Airan, Thompson, Fenno, Bernstein, and Deisseroth 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Studies Perspectives
ISSN (print)1528-3585

Other styles