How to format your references using the Permafrost and Periglacial Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Permafrost and Periglacial Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carlsson, A. 2001. A paradigm shift in brain research. Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 : 1021–1024.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lindvall, O. & Hyun, I. 2009. Medical innovation versus stem cell tourism. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 : 1664–1665.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuhlenkoetter, S., Wintermeyer, W. & Rodnina, M.V. 2011. Different substrate-dependent transition states in the active site of the ribosome. Nature 476 : 351–354.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fridman, E., Carrari, F., Liu, Y.-S., Fernie, A.R. & Zamir, D. 2004. Zooming in on a quantitative trait for tomato yield using interspecific introgressions. Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 : 1786–1789.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chinesta, F., Cescotto, S., Cueto, E. & Lorong, P. 2013. Natural Element Method for the Simulation of Structures and Processes, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Confalonieri, N. & Romagnoli, S. eds 2013. Small Implants in Knee Reconstruction, Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dargahi, F., Rahmani, A.M. & Jabbehdari, S. 2009. Data Gathering Based on Nodes’ Credit in Wireless Sensor Network. In Advances in Communication and Networking: Second International Conference on Future Generation Communication and Networking, FGCN 2008, Sanya, Hainan Island, China, December 13-15, 2008. Revised Selected Papers. Communications in Computer and Information Science. T.-H. Kim, L. T. Yang, J. H. Park, A. C.-C. Chang, T. Vasilakos, & S.-S. Yeo, eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 55–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Permafrost and Periglacial Processes.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014. Asteroid Discovered Just Days Ago Will Approach Closer Than The Moon This Weekend. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1981. Provisions of S. 821, a Bill To Provide for Authorization of Appropriations for the Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoscoe, B.T. 2014. Assistive technology and the promotion of inclusion for special needs children in public schools: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. 2017. An Ink-Stained Reunion After Years of Digital Upheaval. New York Times A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carlsson 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Carlsson 2001; Lindvall & Hyun 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lindvall & Hyun 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Fridman et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePermafrost and Periglacial Processes
AbbreviationPermafrost Periglacial Processes
ISSN (print)1045-6740
ISSN (online)1099-1530
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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