How to format your references using the Permafrost and Periglacial Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Permafrost and Periglacial Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr, R.A. 2000. EARTH SCIENCE: Did Volcanoes Drive Ancient Extinctions? Science (New York, N.Y.) 289 : 1130–1131.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burns, N.Z. & Jacobsen, E.N. 2012. Organic chemistry: catalysis in tight spaces. Nature 483 : 278–279.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ackman, J.B., Burbridge, T.J. & Crair, M.C. 2012. Retinal waves coordinate patterned activity throughout the developing visual system. Nature 490 : 219–225.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Balanyá, J., Oller, J.M., Huey, R.B., Gilchrist, G.W. & Serra, L. 2006. Global genetic change tracks global climate warming in Drosophila subobscura. Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 : 1773–1775.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chateigner, D. 2013. Combined Analysis, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Shackelford, T.K. & Pound, N. eds 2006. Sperm Competition in Humans: Classic and Contemporary Readings, Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Sturmey, P. & Williams, D.E. 2016. Behavioral Assessment and Treatment: An Overview. In Pica in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities. Autism and Child Psychopathology Series. D. E. Williams, ed. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 41–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Permafrost and Periglacial Processes.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Are We Recycling Too Much Of Our Trash? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2002. Food and Drug Administration: Effect of User Fees on Drug Approval Times, Withdrawals, and Other Agency Activities, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
James, T.C. 2017. African American Students in a California Community College: Perceptions of Cultural Congruity and Academic Self-Concept within a Black Culture Center. Doctoral dissertation. Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. 2017. Film Series. New York Times C20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kerr 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kerr 2000; Burns & Jacobsen 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burns & Jacobsen 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Balanyá et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePermafrost and Periglacial Processes
AbbreviationPermafrost Periglacial Processes
ISSN (print)1045-6740
ISSN (online)1099-1530
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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