How to format your references using the Permafrost and Periglacial Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Permafrost and Periglacial Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. 2001. Pharmacogenetics initiative galvanizes public and private sectors. Nature 410 : 393–394.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zoncu, R. & Sabatini, D.M. 2011. Cell biology. The TASCC of secretion. Science (New York, N.Y.) 332 : 923–925.
A journal article with 3 authors
Diemand, J., Moore, B. & Stadel, J. 2005. Earth-mass dark-matter haloes as the first structures in the early Universe. Nature 433 : 389–391.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Maeda, T., Hobbs, R.M., Merghoub, T., Guernah, I., Zelent, A., Cordon-Cardo, C., Teruya-Feldstein, J. & Pandolfi, P.P. 2005. Role of the proto-oncogene Pokemon in cellular transformation and ARF repression. Nature 433 : 278–285.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Evans, A.W. 2008. Economics, Real Estate and the Supply of Land, Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Ernest, P. 2016. The Philosophy of Mathematics Education O. Skovsmose, J. P. van Bendegem, M. Bicudo, R. Miarka, L. Kvasz, & R. Moeller, eds., Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Linz, T., Gourmelon, L. & Langereis, G. 2007. Contactless EMG sensors embroidered onto textile. In 4th International Workshop on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks (BSN 2007): March 26 – 28, 2007 RWTH Aachen University, Germany. IFMBE Proceedings. S. Leonhardt, T. Falck, & P. Mähönen, eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 29–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Permafrost and Periglacial Processes.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. How To Protect Planes And Passengers From Explosions On The Surface Of The Sun. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1985. Survey of Small Businesses’ Reactions to Changes in the Costs of Telephone Service, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Faello, J.P. 2012. Is strong corporate governance associated with informative income smoothing? Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. 2013. Olympic Leaders Mend U.S. Ties With the I.O.C. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2001; Zoncu & Sabatini 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zoncu & Sabatini 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Maeda et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePermafrost and Periglacial Processes
AbbreviationPermafrost Periglacial Processes
ISSN (print)1045-6740
ISSN (online)1099-1530
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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