How to format your references using the Permafrost and Periglacial Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Permafrost and Periglacial Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jackson, S.C. 2009. Climate change. Parallel pursuit of near-term and long-term climate mitigation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 326 : 526–527.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rieux-Laucat, F. & Casanova, J.-L. 2014. Immunology. Autoimmunity by haploinsufficiency. Science (New York, N.Y.) 345 : 1560–1561.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cook, D.J., Teves, L. & Tymianski, M. 2012. Treatment of stroke with a PSD-95 inhibitor in the gyrencephalic primate brain. Nature 483 : 213–217.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Breitbach, C.J., Burke, J., Jonker, D., Stephenson, J., Haas, A.R., Chow, L.Q.M., Nieva, J., Hwang, T.-H., Moon, A., Patt, R., Pelusio, A., Le Boeuf, F., Burns, J., Evgin, L., De Silva, N., Cvancic, S., Robertson, T., Je, J.-E., Lee, Y.-S., Parato, K., Diallo, J.-S., Fenster, A., Daneshmand, M., Bell, J.C. & Kirn, D.H. 2011. Intravenous delivery of a multi-mechanistic cancer-targeted oncolytic poxvirus in humans. Nature 477 : 99–102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nagashima, Y. 2013. Elementary Particle Physics, Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Kaskutas, L.A. & Galanter, M. eds 2008. Recent Developments in Alcoholism: Research on Alcoholics Anonymous and Spirituality in Addiction Recovery, New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Carsrud, A.L. & Brännback, M. 2012. Case Two: Gazi Family Constitution – Managing the Family in a Family Firm. In Family Firms in Transition: Case Studies on Succession, Inheritance, and Governance. SpringerBriefs in Business. M. Brännback, ed. New York, NY: Springer, pp. 15–24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Permafrost and Periglacial Processes.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014. Breast Milk Custom Formulated For Baby’s Gender. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1995. Transportation and Telecommunications Issue Area: Active Assignments, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ishutov, S. 2013. Tectonic characterization of the THUMS-Huntington Beach fault, offshore southern California. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K. 2004. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Soldiers’ Convictions Reinstated. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jackson 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Jackson 2009; Rieux-Laucat & Casanova 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rieux-Laucat & Casanova 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Breitbach et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titlePermafrost and Periglacial Processes
AbbreviationPermafrost Periglacial Processes
ISSN (print)1045-6740
ISSN (online)1099-1530
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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