How to format your references using the Permafrost and Periglacial Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Permafrost and Periglacial Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baldwin, R.L. 2002. Making a network of hydrophobic clusters. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 : 1657–1658.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bintanja, R. & van de Wal, R.S.W. 2008. North American ice-sheet dynamics and the onset of 100,000-year glacial cycles. Nature 454 : 869–872.
A journal article with 3 authors
Knigge, C., Leigh, N. & Sills, A. 2009. A binary origin for “blue stragglers” in globular clusters. Nature 457 : 288–290.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kowalski, M.P., Dubouix-Bourandy, A., Bajmoczi, M., Golan, D.E., Zaidi, T., Coutinho-Sledge, Y.S., Gygi, M.P., Gygi, S.P., Wiemer, E.A.C. & Pier, G.B. 2007. Host resistance to lung infection mediated by major vault protein in epithelial cells. Science (New York, N.Y.) 317 : 130–132.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety 2000. Guidelines for Process Safety in Outsourced Manufacturing Operations, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Simpson, S.S. & Weisburd, D. eds 2009. The Criminology of White-Collar Crime 1st ed., New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hanser, C. & Slamanig, D. 2013. Warrant-Hiding Delegation-by-Certificate Proxy Signature Schemes. In Progress in Cryptology – INDOCRYPT 2013: 14th International Conference on Cryptology in India, Mumbai, India, December 7-10, 2013. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. G. Paul & S. Vaudenay, eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 60–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Permafrost and Periglacial Processes.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2015. Environmental Factors Experienced By A Man Could Impact His Grandchildren. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1998. Balancing Flexibility and Accountability: Grant Program Design in Education and Other Areas, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, K.S. 2008. Towards an improved baton technique: The application and modification of conducting gestures drawn from the methods of Rudolf, Green and Saitö for enhanced performance of orchestral interpretations. Doctoral dissertation. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B. 2015. An Off-Duty Police Officer Is Robbed of Her Gun After Being Attacked in the Bronx. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baldwin 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Baldwin 2002; Bintanja & van de Wal 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bintanja & van de Wal 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Kowalski et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePermafrost and Periglacial Processes
AbbreviationPermafrost Periglacial Processes
ISSN (print)1045-6740
ISSN (online)1099-1530
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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