How to format your references using the Permafrost and Periglacial Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Permafrost and Periglacial Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hajduk, S.L. 2006. Microbiology. Timing the sexual development of parasites. Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 : 626–627.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abrahamson, J. & Dinniss, J. 2000. Ball lightning caused by oxidation of nanoparticle networks from normal lightning strikes on soil. Nature 403 : 519–521.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gupta, G., Jalil, M.B.A. & Liang, G. 2014. Evaluation of mobility in thin Bi2Se3 topological insulator for prospects of local electrical interconnects. Scientific reports 4 : 6838.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xu, X., Cheng, Y.-N., Wang, X.-L. & Chang, C.-H. 2002. An unusual oviraptorosaurian dinosaur from China. Nature 419 : 291–293.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, D. 2007. TKO Hiring!, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
McGeoch, C.C. ed 2008. Experimental Algorithms: 7th International Workshop, WEA 2008 Provincetown, MA, USA, May 30-June 1, 2008 Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, C.-S., Wang, M.-H., Hung, P.-H., Kuo, Y.-L., Wang, H.-M. & Lin, B.-H. 2013. Apply Fuzzy Markup Language to ASAP Assessment System. In On the Power of Fuzzy Markup Language. Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing. G. Acampora, V. Loia, C.-S. Lee, & M.-H. Wang, eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 73–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Permafrost and Periglacial Processes.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2016. Star Trek’s Photon Torpedoes Are Almost Possible. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1987. ADP Procurements: Food and Drug Administration Circumvented Procurement Regulations, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dominguez, Y.C. 2014. Recruitment, training, and support for foster parents of children birth to 4 years: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fernandez, M., Pérez-Peña, R. & Santos, F. 2015. Gunman in Texas Was F.B.I. Suspect in Jihad Inquiry. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hajduk 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Hajduk 2006; Abrahamson & Dinniss 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Abrahamson & Dinniss 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Xu et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePermafrost and Periglacial Processes
AbbreviationPermafrost Periglacial Processes
ISSN (print)1045-6740
ISSN (online)1099-1530
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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