How to format your references using the Earthquake Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earthquake Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mann A (2011) Cosmology: The hunting of the dark. Nature 471:433–435
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson DR, Hare JF (2004) Animal communication: ground squirrel uses ultrasonic alarms. Nature 430:523
A journal article with 3 authors
Squartini T, van Lelyveld I, Garlaschelli D (2013) Early-warning signals of topological collapse in interbank networks. Sci Rep 3:3357
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Li W, Pohl T, Rost JM, et al (2011) A homonuclear molecule with a permanent electric dipole moment. Science 334:1110–1114

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Popescu D, Gharbi A, Stefanoiu D, Borne P (2017) Process Control Design for Industrial Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ogras UY (2013) Modeling, Analysis and Optimization of Network-on-Chip Communication Architectures. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Batini C, Pernici B (2006) Data Quality Management and Evolution of Information Systems. In: Avison D, Elliot S, Krogstie J, Pries-Heje J (eds) The Past and Future of Information Systems: 1976–2006 and Beyond: IFIP 19th World Computer Congress, TC-8, Information System Stream, August 21–23, 2006, Santiago, Chile. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 51–62

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earthquake Science.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Super-Earths Have Continents Too. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak Needs to Improve Its Decisionmaking Process for Its Route and Service Proposals. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ortiz-Quiusky S (2015) Substance abuse, smoking, and depression among military veterans. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2010) Pettitte’s Words And Character Carry Weight. New York Times B10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mann 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Wilson and Hare 2004; Mann 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilson and Hare 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarthquake Science
AbbreviationEarthq. Sci.
ISSN (print)1674-4519
ISSN (online)1867-8777
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Other styles