How to format your references using the Earthquake Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earthquake Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lander ES (2011) Initial impact of the sequencing of the human genome. Nature 470:187–197
A journal article with 2 authors
Truitt WA, Coolen LM (2002) Identification of a potential ejaculation generator in the spinal cord. Science 297:1566–1569
A journal article with 3 authors
Schieber J, Krinsley D, Riciputi L (2000) Diagenetic origin of quartz silt in mudstones and implications for silica cycling. Nature 406:981–985
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Juhás P, Cherba DM, Duxbury PM, et al (2006) Ab initio determination of solid-state nanostructure. Nature 440:655–658

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Williams P (2015) Managing Measurement Risk in Building and Civil Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Ronco AL (2012) Nutritional Epidemiology of Breast Cancer. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Quesada-Moraga E, Herrero N, Zabalgogeazcoa Í (2014) Entomopathogenic and Nematophagous Fungal Endophytes. In: Verma VC, Gange AC (eds) Advances in Endophytic Research. Springer India, New Delhi, pp 85–99

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earthquake Science.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2014) Does My Voice Really Sound Like That? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) NASA’s Development of EOSDIS. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Narayanan BC (2008) Structure function diversity within the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily as revealed by the enzymes oxaloacetate decarboxylase and 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2003) World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Mandatory Military Service. New York Times A8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lander 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Truitt and Coolen 2002; Lander 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Truitt and Coolen 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Juhás et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarthquake Science
AbbreviationEarthq. Sci.
ISSN (print)1674-4519
ISSN (online)1867-8777
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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