How to format your references using the Earthquake Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earthquake Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Szoka F (2008) Molecular biology. The art of assembly. Science 319:578–579
A journal article with 2 authors
Ellerbroek B, Rigaut F (2000) Optics adapt to the whole sky. Nature 403:25–26
A journal article with 3 authors
Cerda E, Ravi-Chandar K, Mahadevan L (2002) Thin films. Wrinkling of an elastic sheet under tension. Nature 419:579–580
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Rasmussen SGF, DeVree BT, Zou Y, et al (2011) Crystal structure of the β2 adrenergic receptor-Gs protein complex. Nature 477:549–555

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety (2003) Guidelines for Investigating Chemical Process Incidents. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Chen S-H, Wang PP, Kuo T-W (eds) (2007) Computational Intelligence in Economics and Finance: Volume II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Käyhkö J, Apsite E, Bolek A, et al (2015) Recent Change—River Run-off and Ice Cover. In: The BACC II Author Team (ed) Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 99–116

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earthquake Science.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Exxon Knew About Climate Change In 1981 – And Covered It Up. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Information Technology: INS Needs to Better Manage the Development of Its Enterprise Architecture. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rosenfeld EG (2009) The ascent of women to senior leadership positions in the financial services industry: A phenomenological study. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B (2017) A Guide to Screen Cred. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Szoka 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Ellerbroek and Rigaut 2000; Szoka 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ellerbroek and Rigaut 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Rasmussen et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarthquake Science
AbbreviationEarthq. Sci.
ISSN (print)1674-4519
ISSN (online)1867-8777
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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