How to format your references using the Earthquake Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earthquake Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wood J (2005) Obituary: Alastair Cameron (1925-2005). Nature 438:752
A journal article with 2 authors
Fisher B, Costanza R (2005) Environmental policy: regional commitment to reducing emissions. Nature 438:301–302
A journal article with 3 authors
McAlary L, Yerbury JJ, Aquilina JA (2013) Glutathionylation potentiates benign superoxide dismutase 1 variants to the toxic forms associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Sci Rep 3:3275
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tang HX, Masmanidis S, Kawakami RK, et al (2004) Negative intrinsic resistivity of an individual domain wall in epitaxial (Ga,Mn)As microdevices. Nature 431:52–56

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sedivy J, Carlson G (2011) Sold on Language. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Balla T, Wymann M, York JD (eds) (2012) Phosphoinositides II: The Diverse Biological Functions. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Leo A, Handjaras G, Marino H, et al (2016) The Motor Control of Hand Movements in the Human Brain: Toward the Definition of a Cortical Representation of Postural Synergies. In: Bianchi M, Moscatelli A (eds) Human and Robot Hands: Sensorimotor Synergies to Bridge the Gap Between Neuroscience and Robotics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 41–60

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earthquake Science.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) How the Parrot Got its Chat (and its Dance Moves). In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites: Restructuring Is Under Way, but Technical Challenges and Risks Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alsubaihi SI (2016) Challenges for women academic leaders to obtain senior leadership positions in higher education in Saudi Arabia. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO (2016) Friday File: Recalling Batman’s Star Turn at Shea Stadium in ’66. New York Times C26

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wood 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Fisher and Costanza 2005; Wood 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fisher and Costanza 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Tang et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarthquake Science
AbbreviationEarthq. Sci.
ISSN (print)1674-4519
ISSN (online)1867-8777
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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