How to format your references using the Earthquake Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earthquake Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Coleman P (2007) Frontier at your fingertips. Nature 446:379
A journal article with 2 authors
Phillips P, Balatsky AV (2007) Physics. Cracking the supersolid. Science 316:1435–1436
A journal article with 3 authors
Ackerman LKG, Lovell MM, Weix DJ (2015) Multimetallic catalysed cross-coupling of aryl bromides with aryl triflates. Nature 524:454–457
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pannuzzo M, Raudino A, Milardi D, et al (2013) α-helical structures drive early stages of self-assembly of amyloidogenic amyloid polypeptide aggregate formation in membranes. Sci Rep 3:2781

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pelz G (2005) Mechatronic Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Kadarmideen HN (ed) (2016) Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health, Vol. 2. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
van Trijp HCM, Fischer ARH (2011) Mobilizing consumer demand for sustainable development. In: van Latesteijn H, Andeweg K (eds) The TransForum Model: Transforming Agro Innovation Toward Sustainable Development. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 73–96

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earthquake Science.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) High Court Rules Breast Cancer Gene Cannot Be Patented. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) Wallop-Breaux Trust Fund. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zeedick DM (2010) The modified delphi method to analyze the application of instructional design theory to online graduate education. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2010) American Soccer Is Hitting the Right Notes. New York Times B14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Coleman 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Coleman 2007; Phillips and Balatsky 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Phillips and Balatsky 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Pannuzzo et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarthquake Science
AbbreviationEarthq. Sci.
ISSN (print)1674-4519
ISSN (online)1867-8777
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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