How to format your references using the Earthquake Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earthquake Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sethmann I (2013) Materials science. Creating flexible calcite fibers with proteins. Science 339:1281–1282
A journal article with 2 authors
Kurzban R, Barrett HC (2012) Behavior. Origins of cumulative culture. Science 335:1056–1057
A journal article with 3 authors
Fontana L, Partridge L, Longo VD (2010) Extending healthy life span--from yeast to humans. Science 328:321–326
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Harris KD, Henze DA, Hirase H, et al (2002) Spike train dynamics predicts theta-related phase precession in hippocampal pyramidal cells. Nature 417:738–741

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kromidas S (2014) Der HPLC-Experte. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Lowen R, Verschoren A (eds) (2008) Foundations of Generic Optimization: Volume 2: Applications of Fuzzy Control, Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Clavier H, Nolan SP (2010) Building Indenylidene–Ruthenium Catalysts for Metathesis Transformations. In: Dragutan V, Demonceau A, Dragutan I, Finkelshtein ES (eds) Green Metathesis Chemistry. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 39–47

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earthquake Science.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Humans Have Destroyed A Tenth Of The Planet’s Wilderness In Just 25 Years. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982) Improper Use of Federal Student Aid Funds for Lobbying Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kong C (2001) Formal Methods Applied to the Specification of an Active Network Node. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C (2012) Austin Auteur Tries Traditional but Stays Eccentric. New York Times A27B

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sethmann 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Kurzban and Barrett 2012; Sethmann 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kurzban and Barrett 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Harris et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarthquake Science
AbbreviationEarthq. Sci.
ISSN (print)1674-4519
ISSN (online)1867-8777
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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