How to format your references using the Pediatric Urology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Urology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hellemans A. Getting into good company. Nature 2002;416(6883):5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aaronson DS, Horvath CM. A road map for those who don’t know JAK-STAT. Science 2002;296(5573):1653–1655.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fouchier RAM, Herfst S, Osterhaus ADME. Public health and biosecurity. Restricted data on influenza H5N1 virus transmission. Science 2012;335(6069):662–663.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Irifune T, Higo Y, Inoue T, Kono Y, Ohfuji H, Funakoshi K. Sound velocities of majorite garnet and the composition of the mantle transition region. Nature 2008;451(7180):814–817.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pardoe I. Applied Regression Modeling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Sobh T, Elleithy K, eds. Advances in Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering: Proceedings of SCSS05. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Tonon G, de la Vega LR. The Importance of Friendship in the Construction of Positive Nations. In: Águeda Marujo H, Neto LM, eds. Positive Nations and Communities: Collective, Qualitative and Cultural-Sensitive Processes in Positive Psychology. Cross-Cultural Advancements in Positive Psychology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014:65–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Urology Case Reports.

Blog post
Andrews R. Scientists Vote We Have Entered The Anthropocene Epoch, Earth’s Newest Geological Chapter. IFLScience 2016. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Aid: Financial Assistance to Scholarship Athletes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meaux B. Effect of Formation Deformation on Casing Standoff in Highly Deviated and Horizontal Wells. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. Request to Alter Opening Ceremony Collides With Tradition. New York Times. July 28, 2016:B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Urology Case Reports
ISSN (online)2148-2969

Other styles