How to format your references using the Pediatric Urology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Urology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mira-Perez J. Spanish university study ignores research. Nature 2000;404(6775):222.
A journal article with 2 authors
Srivastava D, Ivey KN. Potential of stem-cell-based therapies for heart disease. Nature 2006;441(7097):1097–1099.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peiris JSM, Poon LLM, Guan Y. Public health. Surveillance of animal influenza for pandemic preparedness. Science 2012;335(6073):1173–1174.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ao W, Gaudet J, Kent WJ, Muttumu S, Mango SE. Environmentally induced foregut remodeling by PHA-4/FoxA and DAF-12/NHR. Science 2004;305(5691):1743–1746.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rouse WB. Universities as Complex Enterprises. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
Sackmann R. Coping with Demographic Change: A Comparative View on Education and Local Government in Germany and Poland. (Bartl W, Jonda B, Kopycka K, Rademacher C, eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Churin K, Preechasuk J, Chantrapornchai C. Exploring Video Steganography for Hiding Images Based on Similar Lifting Wavelet Coefficients. In: Papasratorn B, Charoenkitkarn N, Vanijja V, Chongsuphajaisiddhi V, eds. Advances in Information Technology: 6th International Conference, IAIT 2013, Bangkok, Thailand, December 12-13, 2013. Proceedings. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013:35–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Urology Case Reports.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Earth’s Oxygen Levels Continue To Decline. IFLScience 2016. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Research: Airport Cooperative Research Program Addresses Many Needs but Could Enhance Transparency and Clarify Scope of Research Role. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Knudsen E. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder empowerment program: A grant project. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. In Tight Battle, Jets Look Like the Geniuses. New York Times. January 17, 2011:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Urology Case Reports
ISSN (online)2148-2969

Other styles