How to format your references using the Pediatric Urology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Urology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zimmerman PD. Science since 9/11: Homeland insecurity. Nature 2011;477(7363):153–154.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hivon E, Kamionkowski M. Cosmology. A new window to the early universe. Science 2002;298(5597):1349–1350.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin T-W, Dai C-S, Hung K-C. High energy density asymmetric supercapacitor based on NiOOH/Ni3S2/3D graphene and Fe3O4/graphene composite electrodes. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:7274.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tan J, Wang G, Liu ZY, Bednarčík J, Gao YL, Zhai QJ, et al. Correlation between atomic structure evolution and strength in a bulk metallic glass at cryogenic temperature. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:3897.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Edelstein LN, Waehler CA. What Do I Say? Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Berkhout B, Ertl HCJ, Weinberg MS, eds. Gene Therapy for HIV and Chronic Infections. New York, NY: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Grill D, Pfanz H, Lomsky B, Bytnerowicz A, Grulke NE, Tausz M. Physiological responses of trees to air pollutants at high elevation sites. In: Omasa K, Nouchi I, Kok LJD, eds. Plant Responses to Air Pollution and Global Change. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2005:37–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Urology Case Reports.

Blog post
Andrew E. Researchers Catch Octopus Cannibalism On Film. IFLScience 2014. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Cost for Automatic Data Processing Activities in the Federal Government. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kraka EK. Assessment of herbicides for control of non-native species: Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne spp. multiflorum ), tropical spiderwort (Commelina benghalensis), and tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum). 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. Two Blasts Kill Dozens Near Shrines in Damascus. New York Times. March 11, 2017:A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Urology Case Reports
ISSN (online)2148-2969

Other styles