How to format your references using the Pediatric Urology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Urology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lichten M. Molecular biology. Putting the breaks on meiosis. Science 2015;350(6263):913.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vasquez CG, Martin AC. Cell biology: Death drags down the neighbourhood. Nature 2015;518(7538):171–173.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meierbachtol T, Harper J, Humphrey N. Basal drainage system response to increasing surface melt on the Greenland ice sheet. Science 2013;341(6147):777–779.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schaal B, Coureaud G, Langlois D, Giniès C, Sémon E, Perrier G. Chemical and behavioural characterization of the rabbit mammary pheromone. Nature 2003;424(6944):68–72.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jaitly R. Practical Operational Due Diligence on Hedge Funds. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Adams A, ed. Fish Vaccines. Basel: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Breitenmoser A, Martinoli A. On Combining Multi-robot Coverage and Reciprocal Collision Avoidance. In: Chong N-Y, Cho Y-J, eds. Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems: The 12th International Symposium. Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2016:49–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Urology Case Reports.

Blog post
Hale T. 100,000 Flying Foxes Are Causing Chaos In A Small Australian Town. IFLScience 2016. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: National Weather Service Modernization and Weather Satellite Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dillard C. Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS) and Implementation Science. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Case Reopens Abortion Issue for Justices. New York Times. November 29, 2005:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Urology Case Reports
ISSN (online)2148-2969

Other styles