How to format your references using the Pediatric Surgery International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Surgery International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Smith FA (2012) Evolution. Some like it hot. Science 335:924–925
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Prlic M, Bevan MJ (2006) Immunology. An antibody paradox, resolved. Science 311:1875–1876
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
DeCoursey TE, Morgan D, Cherny VV (2003) The voltage dependence of NADPH oxidase reveals why phagocytes need proton channels. Nature 422:531–534
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Jiang B, Liu H, Ru X, et al (2014) Hypertension detection, management, control and associated factors among residents accessing community health services in Beijing. Sci Rep 4:4845

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Carter KB (2014) Actionable Intelligence. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Mach R (2007) Visualization of Digital Terrain and Landscape Data: A Manual. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Balsamo S, Cavallin F, Marin A, Rossi S (2016) Applying Reversibility Theory for the Performance Evaluation of Reversible Computations. In: Wittevrongel S, Phung-Duc T (eds) Analytical and Stochastic Modelling Techniques and Applications: 23rd International Conference, ASMTA 2016, Cardiff, UK, August 24-26, 2016, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 45–59

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Surgery International.

Blog post
1.
Fang J (2014) Sandstorm Uncovers New Nazca Lines. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2000) Information Security: Software Change Controls at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Meier MR (2009) Exploring the effects of school calendars on student achievement. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1.
Markowitz JC (2016) There’s Such a Thing as Too Much Neuroscience. New York Times A21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Surgery International
AbbreviationPediatr. Surg. Int.
ISSN (print)0179-0358
ISSN (online)1437-9813
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
Surgery

Other styles