How to format your references using the Ibsen Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ibsen Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haggard, Patrick. 2009. “Neuroscience. The Sources of Human Volition.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 (5928): 731–733.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hanson, Ronald, and David D. Awschalom. 2008. “Coherent Manipulation of Single Spins in Semiconductors.” Nature 453 (7198): 1043–1049.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zeng, Guo-Mo, Lian-Ao Wu, and Hai-Jun Xing. 2014. “Symmetry Restoration and Quantumness Reestablishment.” Scientific Reports 4 (September): 6377.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yeung, Natasha, Ying-Wu Lin, Yi-Gui Gao, Xuan Zhao, Brandy S. Russell, Lanyu Lei, Kyle D. Miner, Howard Robinson, and Yi Lu. 2009. “Rational Design of a Structural and Functional Nitric Oxide Reductase.” Nature 462 (7276): 1079–1082.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crichton, Robert R., and Roberta J. Ward. 2006. Metal-Based Neurodegeneration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Prusky, Dov, and Maria Lodovica Gullino, eds. 2010. Postharvest Pathology. Vol. 2. Plant Pathology in the 21st Century, Contributions to the 9th International Congress. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Murshed, S. Mansoob. 2005. “Globalisation, Marginalisation and Conflict.” In Globalisation, Poverty and Conflict: A Critical “Development” Reader, edited by Max Spoor, 67–80. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ibsen Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Rosetta Prepares to Rendezvous With Comet.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1981. National Science Foundation Conflict of Interest Problems With Grants to Short Term Employees. PAD-81-16. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boukes, John. 2012. “An Exploration of Online Spam Prevention through Geolocational Filters.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams. 2011. “Shuttle’s End Leaves NASA A Pension Bill.” New York Times, June 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Haggard 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Haggard 2009; Hanson and Awschalom 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hanson and Awschalom 2008)
  • Three authors: (Zeng, Wu, and Xing 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Yeung et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleIbsen Studies
ISSN (print)1502-1866
ISSN (online)1741-8720
Literature and Literary Theory

Other styles