How to format your references using the Ibsen Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ibsen Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paterlini, Marta. 2011. “Anthropology: The Iceman Defrosted.” Nature 471 (7336): 34–35.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rehwinkel, Jan, and Caetano Reis e Sousa. 2010. “RIGorous Detection: Exposing Virus through RNA Sensing.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 327 (5963): 284–286.
A journal article with 3 authors
Plata, Germán, Christopher S. Henry, and Dennis Vitkup. 2015. “Long-Term Phenotypic Evolution of Bacteria.” Nature 517 (7534): 369–372.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Jin, S., H. Mavoori, C. Bower, and R. B. van Dover. 2001. “High Critical Currents in Iron-Clad Superconducting MgB2 Wires.” Nature 411 (6837): 563–565.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gunn, David M. 2016. Judges. Malden, MA, USA: Blackwell Publishing.
An edited book
Yengoh, Genesis T. 2016. Use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to Assess Land Degradation at Multiple Scales: Current Status, Future Trends, and Practical Considerations. Edited by David Dent, Lennart Olsson, Anna E. Tengberg, and Compton J. Tucker III. SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Piasecka, Liliana. 2016. “Activating Character Strengths Through Poetic Encounters in a Foreign Language—A Case Study.” In Positive Psychology Perspectives on Foreign Language Learning and Teaching, edited by Danuta Gabryś-Barker and Dagmara Gałajda, 75–92. Second Language Learning and Teaching. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ibsen Studies.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2017. “EPA Finds 97% Of Endangered Species In US Threatened By Two Common Pesticides.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Financial Education and Counseling Pilot Program. GAO-11-737R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fernandes, Joshua M. 2017. “Physical and Chemical Properties of Jupiter’s North and South Polar Vortex Revealed through Mid-Infrared Imaging.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Michael. 1992. “THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton, on Tour of Western States, Chides G.O.P. for Investigating His Mother.” New York Times, October 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Paterlini 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Paterlini 2011; Rehwinkel and Reis e Sousa 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rehwinkel and Reis e Sousa 2010)
  • Three authors: (Plata, Henry, and Vitkup 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Jin et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleIbsen Studies
ISSN (print)1502-1866
ISSN (online)1741-8720
Literature and Literary Theory

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