How to format your references using the Earth Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pellegrino JW (2013) Proficiency in science: assessment challenges and opportunities. Science 340:320–323
A journal article with 2 authors
Macdonald TT, Monteleone G (2005) Immunity, inflammation, and allergy in the gut. Science 307:1920–1925
A journal article with 3 authors
James A, Pitchford JW, Plank MJ (2012) Disentangling nestedness from models of ecological complexity. Nature 487:227–230
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schulz O, Diebold SS, Chen M, et al (2005) Toll-like receptor 3 promotes cross-priming to virus-infected cells. Nature 433:887–892

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good PI (2013) Introduction to Statistics Through Resampling Methods and R. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Hooft S van, Vandekerckhove W (eds) (2010) Questioning Cosmopolitanism. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Nasim F-UH, Khalil R, Sumreen A, et al (2015) Nickel Metal Uptake and Metal-Specific Stress Alleviation in a Perennial Desert Grass Cenchrus ciliaris. In: Öztürk M, Ashraf M, Aksoy A, et al. (eds) Plants, Pollutants and Remediation. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 99–110

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Perspectives.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Jaw-Dropping Time-Lapse Of A Supercell. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Electronic Signature Prototype System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tosti CL (2009) Quantification of dispersed and aggregated iron in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2005) Justices Weighing Narcotics Policy Against Needs of a Church. New York Times A26

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pellegrino 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Macdonald and Monteleone 2005; Pellegrino 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Macdonald and Monteleone 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Schulz et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Perspectives
ISSN (online)2194-6434

Other styles