How to format your references using the Earth Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Muggleton SH (2006) 2020 computing: exceeding human limits. Nature 440:409–410
A journal article with 2 authors
Giles J, Knight J (2003) Dolly’s death leaves researchers woolly on clone ageing issue. Nature 421:776
A journal article with 3 authors
Lambertucci SA, Shepard ELC, Wilson RP (2015) Ecology. Human-wildlife conflicts in a crowded airspace. Science 348:502–504
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sekanina Z, Brownlee DE, Economou TE, et al (2004) Modeling the nucleus and jets of comet 81P/Wild 2 based on the Stardust encounter data. Science 304:1769–1774

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Koperski J (2014) The Physics of Theism. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Dutoit AH, McCall R, Mistrík I, Paech B (eds) (2006) Rationale Management in Software Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Nouri HE, Driss OB, Ghédira K (2015) A Holonic Multiagent Model Based on a Combined Genetic Algorithm─Tabu Search for the Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem. In: Bajo J, Hallenborg K, Pawlewski P, et al. (eds) Highlights of Practical Applications of Agents, Multi-Agent Systems, and Sustainability - The PAAMS Collection: International Workshops of PAAMS 2015, Salamanca, Spain, June 3-4, 2015. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 43–54

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Perspectives.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) Would You Eat A 3D Printed Pizza? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008) The Upcoming Transition: GAO’s Efforts to Assist the 111th Congress and the Next Administration. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cline D (2012) Criminal faces: Clinical experiences of forensic artists. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ (2017) Looking to Bulk Up Sprint, SoftBank Is Casting an Eye on Charter. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Muggleton 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Giles and Knight 2003; Muggleton 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Giles and Knight 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Sekanina et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Perspectives
ISSN (online)2194-6434

Other styles