How to format your references using the Earth Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check E (2007) Abbott’s AIDS fight-back. Nature 448:14
A journal article with 2 authors
Nott J, Hayne M (2001) High frequency of “super-cyclones” along the Great Barrier Reef over the past 5,000 years. Nature 413:508–512
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoo AS, Bais C, Greenwald I (2004) Crosstalk between the EGFR and LIN-12/Notch pathways in C. elegans vulval development. Science 303:663–666
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhuang X, Kim H, Pereira MJB, et al (2002) Correlating structural dynamics and function in single ribozyme molecules. Science 296:1473–1476

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Millon T, Grossman S (2007) Overcoming Resistant Personality Disorders. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Murakami Y, Lin D (eds) (2016) Worldwide Language Service Infrastructure: Second International Workshop, WLSI 2015, Kyoto, Japan, January 22-23, 2015. Revised Selected Papers, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Gao Q, Zhang W, Tian F (2015) Transformation to Daily Routine: Reform and Governance. In: Zhang W, Tian F (eds) The Road to the Rule of Law in Modern China. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 99–133

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Perspectives.

Blog post
Andrew D (2015) 7 Myths About Space You Probably Believe. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Truck Safety: Motor Carriers Office Hampered by Limited Information on Causes of Crashes and Other Data Problems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pokhrel P (2010) Towards improved identification of spatially-distributed rainfall runoff models. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Landler M (2007) High-Priced Oil Adds Volatility To Global Scramble for Power. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Check 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Nott and Hayne 2001; Check 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nott and Hayne 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhuang et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Perspectives
ISSN (online)2194-6434

Other styles