How to format your references using the Earth Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A (2000) SOLAR SYSTEM EXPLORATION: A More Cautious NASA Sets Plans for Mars. Science 290:915a–6a
A journal article with 2 authors
He F, Hubbell SP (2011) Species-area relationships always overestimate extinction rates from habitat loss. Nature 473:368–371
A journal article with 3 authors
Masle J, Gilmore SR, Farquhar GD (2005) The ERECTA gene regulates plant transpiration efficiency in Arabidopsis. Nature 436:866–870
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kiers ET, Leakey RRB, Izac A-M, et al (2008) Ecology. Agriculture at a crossroads. Science 320:320–321

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Källén A (2011) Understanding Biostatistics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Mattassi R, Loose DA, Vaghi M (eds) (2009) Hemangiomas and Vascular Malformations: An Atlas of Diagnosis and Treatment. Springer, Milano
A chapter in an edited book
Marin M, Hull R, Vaculín R (2013) Data Centric BPM and the Emerging Case Management Standard: A Short Survey. In: Rosa ML, Soffer P (eds) Business Process Management Workshops: BPM 2012 International Workshops, Tallinn, Estonia, September 3, 2012. Revised Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 24–30

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Perspectives.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) We Just Learned A New Secret About The Great Pyramid Of Giza. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979) GAO’s Need for an Interim Management Data System (MDS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huang Y (2017) Optimal control of heat engines in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2012) Richards-Ross Breaks American Drought In the Women’s 400. New York Times D1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lawler 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Lawler 2000; He and Hubbell 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (He and Hubbell 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Kiers et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Perspectives
ISSN (online)2194-6434

Other styles