How to format your references using the Earth Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Feldstein SB (2011) Atmospheric science. Subtropical rainfall and the Antarctic ozone hole. Science 332:925–926
A journal article with 2 authors
Wikelski M, Thom C (2000) Marine iguanas shrink to survive El Niño. Nature 403:37–38
A journal article with 3 authors
Iwai M, Yokono M, Nakano A (2014) Visualizing structural dynamics of thylakoid membranes. Sci Rep 4:3768
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gorthi A, Romero JC, Loranc E, et al (2018) EWS-FLI1 increases transcription to cause R-loops and block BRCA1 repair in Ewing sarcoma. Nature 555:387–391

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kondoz AM (2006) Digital Speech. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Hutter K (2011) Physics of Lakes: Volume 2: Lakes as Oscillators. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
De Weerdt D, Pinchuk R, Aked R, et al (2007) TopiMaker - An Implementation of a Novel Topic Maps Visualization. In: Maicher L, Sigel A, Garshol LM (eds) Leveraging the Semantics of Topic Maps: Second International Conference on Topic Maps Research and Applications, TMRA 2006, Leipzig, Germany, October 11-12, 2006, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 32–43

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Perspectives.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Newly Identified Hormone Reduces Diet-Induced Obesity In Rodents. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983) FCC Needs To Monitor a Changing International Telecommunications Market. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nersessian N (2012) Modified gravity with scale invariance and implications. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B (2017) Fitness Classes for Saudi Arabia’s Girls. New York Times A7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Feldstein 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Wikelski and Thom 2000; Feldstein 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wikelski and Thom 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Gorthi et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Perspectives
ISSN (online)2194-6434

Other styles