How to format your references using the Pediatric Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Smaglik P. Career prospects in Europe. Nature. 2002;419:3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Daubin V, Moran NA. Comment on “The origins of genome complexity.” Science. 2004;306:978; author reply 978.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Biastoch A, Böning CW, Lutjeharms JRE. Agulhas leakage dynamics affects decadal variability in Atlantic overturning circulation. Nature. 2008;456:489–92.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Qi J, Olmedo M, Zheng J-G, Liu J. Multimode resistive switching in single ZnO nanoisland system. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2405.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Scheinfeld R. Busting Loose from the Business Game. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Muller J-M. Handbook of Floating-Point Arithmetic. 1st ed. Brisebarre N, de Dinechin F, Jeannerod C-P, Lefèvre V, Melquiond G, Revol N, et al., editors. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Briken V. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genes Involved in Regulation of Host Cell Death. In: Divangahi M, editor. The New Paradigm of Immunity to Tuberculosis. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 93–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Rheumatology.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Study Reveals That Your Cat Is Basically A Tiny Lion [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Emergency Management: Most School Districts Have Developed Emergency Management Plans, but Would Benefit from Additional Federal Guidance. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Jun. Report No.: GAO-07-609.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Liang M. Information, communication and wayfinding: Technology shows us the world [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Feeney K. Thinking Big On Making Little Cakes. New York Times. 2008 Oct 12;NJ12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Rheumatology
AbbreviationPediatr. Rheumatol. Online J.
ISSN (online)1546-0096
ScopeImmunology and Allergy
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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