How to format your references using the Language Resources and Evaluation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language Resources and Evaluation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Loder, N. (2000). Unfavourable economics put postdocs across Europe under strain. Nature, 407(6802), 427–429.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, B. E., & Braun, R. E. (2012). Germ cell migration across Sertoli cell tight junctions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6108), 798–802.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoshida, N., Omukai, K., & Hernquist, L. (2008). Protostar formation in the early universe. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5889), 669–671.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Stone, M. B., Bernstein, D. P., Barry, R., Pelc, M. D., Tsui, Y.-K., & Schiffer, P. (2004). Stress propagation: getting to the bottom of a granular medium. Nature, 427(6974), 503–504.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kossiakoff, A., & Sweet, W. N. (2005). Systems Engineering Principles and Practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zhou, Z., Wang, Z., & Lin, L. (Eds.). (2012). Microsystems and Nanotechnology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Thovex, C., & Trichet, F. (2014). Automatic Building of Socio-semantic Networks for Requirements Analysis. In R. Buchmann, C. V. Kifor, & J. Yu (Eds.), Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management: 7th International Conference, KSEM 2014, Sibiu, Romania, October 16-18, 2014. Proceedings (pp. 37–48). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language Resources and Evaluation.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, November 10). The Year You Were Born Determines Which Strains Of Flu You’re Vulnerable To. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Aviation Research: Actions to Enhance the Effectiveness of FAA’s Research Activities (No. T-RCED-93-40). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swartz, H. (2017). The Multitude Speaks in Style: An Analysis of Vernacular Agency through Images of Ruth Bader Ginsburg (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1993, May 30). Man in the News; A Master of the Image: David Richmond Gergen. New York Times, p. 122.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Loder 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Loder 2000; Smith and Braun 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith and Braun 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Stone et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage Resources and Evaluation
AbbreviationLang. Resour. Eval.
ISSN (print)1574-020X
ISSN (online)1574-0218
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Library and Information Sciences
Linguistics and Language

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