How to format your references using the Language Resources and Evaluation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language Resources and Evaluation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, O. (2001). Development. Nota bene: a SAC of crumbs and stardust. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5551), 2498.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wolf, F., & Kirchhoff, F. (2008). Neuroscience. Imaging astrocyte activity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5883), 1597–1599.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nielsen, L. K., Bjørnholm, T., & Mouritsen, O. G. (2000). Fluctuations caught in the act. Nature, 404(6776), 352.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yamachika, R., Grobis, M., Wachowiak, A., & Crommie, M. F. (2004). Controlled atomic doping of a single C60 molecule. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5668), 281–284.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Metzger, R. M. (2012). The Physical Chemist’s Toolbox. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Presutti, L., & Mattioli, F. (Eds.). (2016). Endoscopic Surgery of the Lacrimal Drainage System (1st ed. 2016.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bauer, T. E., Skyttä, P., Hermansson, T., Dehghannejad, M., & Tavakoli, S. (2015). The Skellefte District. In P. Weihed (Ed.), 3D, 4D and Predictive Modelling of Major Mineral Belts in Europe (pp. 93–121). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language Resources and Evaluation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 17). Robots Could Soon Be Controlled By Bacteria. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). College Textbooks: Enhanced Offerings Appear to Drive Recent Price Increases (No. GAO-05-806). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGary, J. (2012). Gender and the poverty-conflict trap (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gurley, G. (2012, February 19). Since 1956, a Sensitive Guy. New York Times, p. ST2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Smith 2001; Wolf and Kirchhoff 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wolf and Kirchhoff 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Yamachika et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage Resources and Evaluation
AbbreviationLang. Resour. Eval.
ISSN (print)1574-020X
ISSN (online)1574-0218
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Library and Information Sciences
Linguistics and Language

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