How to format your references using the Pediatric Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lazcano A. Global voices of science. Teaching evolution in Mexico: preaching to the choir. Science 2005;310:787–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kornberg TB, Gilboa L. Developmental biology: Nanotubes in the niche. Nature 2015;523:292–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pesaran B, Nelson MJ, Andersen RA. Free choice activates a decision circuit between frontal and parietal cortex. Nature 2008;453:406–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Du Y, Xin L, Shi Y, et al. Genome-wide identification of interferon-sensitive mutations enables influenza vaccine design. Science 2018;359:290–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson SK, Handelsman MM. Ethics for Psychotherapists and Counselors. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
An edited book
Ulivi P. Robotic Exploration of the Solar System: Part 3: Wows and Woes, 1997-2003. New York, NY: Praxis; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
McCarthy EF. Metabolic Bone Disorders. In: McCarthy EF, Zhang PJ, editors. Essentials in Bone and Soft-Tissue Pathology. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010. p. 61–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Research.

Blog post
Andrew D. Elmo Joins The Fight Against Anti-Vaxxers [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airline Deregulation: Addressing the Air Service Problems of Some Communities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moose AM. The Relationship of Distributed Expertise and Shared Leadership in New Product Development Teams: A Comparative Case Study. 2013;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Baseball; Rainout Gives Injured Mets More Rest. New York Times. 2017;B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Research
AbbreviationPediatr. Res.
ISSN (print)0031-3998
ISSN (online)1530-0447
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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