How to format your references using the Pediatric Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zakamska NL. H(2) emission arises outside photodissociation regions in ultraluminous infrared galaxies. Nature 2010;465:60–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gray GM, Cohen JT. Policy: Rethink chemical risk assessments. Nature 2012;489:27–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meng Y, Tanaka S, Poon C-S. Comment on “Universality in the evolution of orientation columns in the visual cortex.” Science 2012;336:413; author reply 413.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fukami H, Budd AF, Paulay G, et al. Conventional taxonomy obscures deep divergence between Pacific and Atlantic corals. Nature 2004;427:832–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baldwin CJ. The 10 Principles of Food Industry Sustainability. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Erturk SM. Teaching Atlas of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Imaging: A Collection of Clinical Cases. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Dowson N, Thomas P, Smith J, Salvado O, Rose S. Large Scale Simplex Optimisation to Accelerate Kinetic Analysis. In: Gao F, Shi K, Li S, editors. Computational Methods for Molecular Imaging. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 35–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Research.

Blog post
Taub B. Watch An Enormous Whale Feed From Just A Few Feet Away [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Needs to Establish Critical Investment Management Capabilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Song H-J. Strategic Constraints of Economic Interdependence: South Korea’s Changing Strategy in the Face of a Rising China. 2014;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW, Corkery M, Davis JH. White House Will Offer Plan to Help Puerto Rico. New York Times. 2015;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Research
AbbreviationPediatr. Res.
ISSN (print)0031-3998
ISSN (online)1530-0447
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles