How to format your references using the Pediatric Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Supari SF: Q&A: Siti Fadilah Supari. Interviewed by Declan Butler. Nature 2007;450:1137.
A journal article with 2 authors
Takagi H, Hwang HY: An emergent change of phase for electronics. Science 2010;327:1601–1602.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shenvi N, Roy S, Tully JC: Dynamical steering and electronic excitation in NO scattering from a gold surface. Science 2009;326:829–832.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhu P, Chen Y-J, Hao J-H, Ge J-F, Huang K, Tao R-X, et al.: Maternal depressive symptoms related to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in late pregnancy. Sci Rep 2013;3:3096.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety: Tools for Making Acute Risk Decisions. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994.
An edited book
Pan Z, Cheok AD, Mueller W, Zhang M (eds): Transactions on Edutainment XI. 1st ed. 2015 Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Biondi A, Testi AM, Gibson BES: Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia; in Houghton PJ, Arceci RJ (eds): Molecularly Targeted Therapy for Childhood Cancer. New York, NY, Springer, 2010, pp 83–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Neurosurgery.

Blog post
Hale T: A Brief History Of Unexpected Things Spiders Have Been Caught Eating. IFLScience 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Less Than Half of Noncommercial Jet Fuel Tax Receipts Are Transferred. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rutherford J: What is old is new again: The role of discontinuity in nostalgia-related consumption 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Akbar K: Being in This World Makes Me Feel Like a Time Traveler. New York Times 2017;MM22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Neurosurgery
AbbreviationPediatr. Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)1016-2291
ISSN (online)1423-0305
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles