How to format your references using the Pediatric Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Waal FBM. A century of getting to know the chimpanzee. Nature. 2005 Sep;437(7055):56–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Su C-Y, Carlson JR. Neuroscience. Circuit logic of avoidance and attraction. Science. 2013 Jun;340(6138):1295–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Standen EM, Du TY, Larsson HCE. Developmental plasticity and the origin of tetrapods. Nature. 2014 Sep;513(7516):54–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Seisenberger G, Ried MU, Endress T, Büning H, Hallek M, Bräuchle C. Real-time single-molecule imaging of the infection pathway of an adeno-associated virus. Science. 2001 Nov;294(5548):1929–32.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tardu S. Transport and Coherent Structures in Wall Turbulence. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Groth P, Simperl E, Gray A, Sabou M, Krötzsch M, Lecue F, et al., editors. The Semantic Web – ISWC 2016: 15th International Semantic Web Conference, Kobe, Japan, October 17–21, 2016, Proceedings, Part I. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Adams AE, Pegg JM, Bottoms SI, Smith Risser H, Wu K, Kern AL. Storying Our Academic Career Transitions within a Peer-mentoring Community. In: Johannessen BGG, editor. Global Co-Mentoring Networks in Higher Education: Politics, Policies, and Practices. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016; pp 73–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Neurosurgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Genetic analysis reveals blue eyes evolved before light skin [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 Jan [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Staffing: Recruitment, Hiring, and Initial Training of Safety-Related Personnel. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lake AD. Hepatic stress response mechanisms in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. 2013

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Policyholders in Limbo After Rare Failure of Insurer. New York Times. 2017 Apr;BU5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Neurosurgery
AbbreviationPediatr. Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)1016-2291
ISSN (online)1423-0305
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles