How to format your references using the Pediatric Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Loder N. UK studies ways of paying to join Chile observatory. Nature. 2000 Jun;405(6790):990.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Liu J, Diamond J. China’s environment in a globalizing world. Nature. 2005 Jun;435(7046):1179–86.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Mavrodiev P, Tessone CJ, Schweitzer F. Quantifying the effects of social influence. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1360.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Pavithra CLP, Sarada BV, Rajulapati KV, Rao TN, Sundararajan G. A new electrochemical approach for the synthesis of copper-graphene nanocomposite foils with high hardness. Sci Rep. 2014 Feb;4:4049.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Akcoglu MA, Bartha PFA, Ha DM. Analysis in Vector Spaces. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1
Celebi ME, editor. Partitional Clustering Algorithms. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Burckhardt S. Consistency in Distributed Systems. In: Meyer B, Nordio M, editors. Software Engineering: International Summer Schools, LASER 2013-2014, Elba, Italy, Revised Tutorial Lectures. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015; pp 84–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Neurosurgery.

Blog post
1
Andrew D. Stories Of Vaccine-Related Harms Are Influential, Even When People Don’t Believe Them [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Jun [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/stories-of-vaccinerelated-harms-are-influential-even-when-people-dont-believe-them/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: Concerns Over Security and Privacy Elements of the Systems Architecture. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Hylton JK. Scatter; Or, A Series or Minor Inconveniences. 2016

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Kelly S. CHILDREN’S BOOKS. New York Times. 1994 Jul;714.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Neurosurgery
AbbreviationPediatr. Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)1016-2291
ISSN (online)1423-0305
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
Surgery

Other styles