How to format your references using the Pediatric Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garber K. Science careers. Translational institute unites unlikely partners at Penn. Science. 2007 Aug;317(5840):968–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hempstead BL, Salzer JL. Neurobiology. A glial spin on neurotrophins. Science. 2002 Nov;298(5596):1184–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
González E, Arbiol J, Puntes VF. Carving at the nanoscale: sequential galvanic exchange and Kirkendall growth at room temperature. Science. 2011 Dec;334(6061):1377–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zillohu AU, Abdelaziz R, Homaeigohar S, Krasnov I, Müller M, Strunskus T, et al. Biomimetic transferable surface for a real time control over wettability and photoerasable writing with water drop lens. Sci Rep. 2014 Dec;4:7407.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mascia L. Polymers in Industry from A-Z. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2011.
An edited book
Vázquez M. The Earth as a Distant Planet: A Rosetta Stone for the Search of Earth-Like Worlds. New York, NY: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Teng M, Ma D, Du X. Maintaining Ranking Lists in Dynamic Virtual Environments. In: Liu A, Ishikawa Y, Qian T, Nutanong S, Cheema MA, editors. Database Systems for Advanced Applications: DASFAA 2015 International Workshops, SeCoP, BDMS, and Posters, Hanoi, Vietnam, April 20-23, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015; pp 52–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Neurosurgery.

Blog post
Andrews R. Scientists Discover Plants Have “Brains” That Determine When They Grow [Internet]. IFLScience. 2017 Jun


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Patent Policy: Department of Commerce Involvement in Department of Energy Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jones LJ. From Corbin and Hillman to Dionysos: The Partial Unveiling of Psyche’s Stage. 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. In the Roberts Court, More Room for Argument. New York Times. 2006 May;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Neurosurgery
AbbreviationPediatr. Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)1016-2291
ISSN (online)1423-0305
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles