How to format your references using the Pediatric Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brock DW. Human cloning and our sense of self. Science. 2002 Apr;296(5566):314–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boomsma JJ, Pamilo P. Retrospective. Rossiter H. Crozier (1943-2009). Science. 2010 Jan;327(5961):45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Abe E, Pennycook SJ, Tsai AP. Direct observation of a local thermal vibration anomaly in a quasicrystal. Nature. 2003 Jan;421(6921):347–50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bhujbal SV, de Haan B, Niclou SP, de Vos P. A novel multilayer immunoisolating encapsulation system overcoming protrusion of cells. Sci Rep. 2014 Oct;4:6856.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
German Geotechnical Society. Recommendations for Design and Analysis of Earth Structures using Geosynthetic Reinforcements - EBGEO. Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG; 2012.
An edited book
Erdmann VA, Poller W, Barciszewski J, editors. RNA Technologies in Cardiovascular Medicine and Research. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Fuller B, Hamlin A. Unifying Leakage Classes: Simulatable Leakage and Pseudoentropy. In: Lehmann A, Wolf S, editors. Information Theoretic Security: 8th International Conference, ICITS 2015, Lugano, Switzerland, May 2-5, 2015. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015; pp 69–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Neurosurgery.

Blog post
Carpineti A. The Second Generation Of Stars Keeps An Imprint Of Their Predecessors [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Dec [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Experts’ and Stakeholders’ Views on Key Issues to Consider in a Potential Restructuring [Reissued on December 9, 2016]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vlajic NA. Dynamics of slender, flexible structures. 2014

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. New Design and Décor In Greenburgh Stacks. New York Times. 2008 Dec;WE6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Neurosurgery
AbbreviationPediatr. Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)1016-2291
ISSN (online)1423-0305
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles