How to format your references using the Computers and Electrical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Electrical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johnson E. Phase of matter. The elusive liquid-solid interface. Science 2002;296:477–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Greene MJ, Gordon DM. Social insects: Cuticular hydrocarbons inform task decisions. Nature 2003;423:32.
A journal article with 3 authors
Altshuler D, Daly MJ, Lander ES. Genetic mapping in human disease. Science 2008;322:881–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Moreno C, Vilas-Varela M, Kretz B, Garcia-Lekue A, Costache MV, Paradinas M, et al. Bottom-up synthesis of multifunctional nanoporous graphene. Science 2018;360:199–203.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tewari A. Advanced Control of Aircraft, Spacecraft and Rockets. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Bast G, Carayannis EG, Campbell DFJ, editors. Arts, Research, Innovation and Society. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Alió JL, Agarwal A, Klonowski P. 0.7 mm Microincision Cataract Surgery. In: Alió JL, Fine IH, editors. Minimizing Incisions and Maximizing Outcomes in Cataract Surgery, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010, p. 13–23.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Electrical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E. Streetlamps Go Green. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Electronic Government: Selection and Implementation of the Office of Management and Budget’s 24 Initiatives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bhatnagar A. Buckling and weight optimization for non-coupled antisymmetric laminates. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Elena Obraztsova, 75, Jewel of the Bolshoi Opera, Is Dead. New York Times 2015:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Electrical Engineering
AbbreviationComput. Electr. Eng.
ISSN (print)0045-7906
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Control and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles