How to format your references using the Computers and Electrical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Electrical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scholze M. Earth network. Nature 2007;447:228.
A journal article with 2 authors
Becskei A, Serrano L. Engineering stability in gene networks by autoregulation. Nature 2000;405:590–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shubin NH, Daeschler EB, Jenkins FA Jr. The pectoral fin of Tiktaalik roseae and the origin of the tetrapod limb. Nature 2006;440:764–71.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Banu N, Chia A, Ho ZZ, Garcia AT, Paravasivam K, Grotenbreg GM, et al. Building and optimizing a virus-specific T cell receptor library for targeted immunotherapy in viral infections. Sci Rep 2014;4:4166.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benmammar B, Amraoui A. Radio Resource Allocation and Dynamic Spectrum Access. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Yore LD, Flier-Keller EV der, Blades DW, Pelton TW, Zandvliet DB, editors. Pacific CRYSTAL Centre for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Literacy: Lessons Learned. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Filho FF. The Economic Policies and Performance of Brazil’s Leftist Government: A Critical Analysis. In: Pereira AW, Mattei L, editors. The Brazilian Economy Today: Towards a New Socio-Economic Model?, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016, p. 77–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Electrical Engineering.

Blog post
Taub B. The Ability To Regenerate Lost Limbs May Have Only Evolved Once. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: Automated Underreporter Project Shows Need for Human Resource Planning. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dhantole G. Evaluating provision of healthcare system in the U.S. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis J. Her Peers Made School Look Easy. With Hard Work, She’s Catching Up. New York Times 2017:A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Electrical Engineering
AbbreviationComput. Electr. Eng.
ISSN (print)0045-7906
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Control and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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