How to format your references using the Computers and Electrical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Electrical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston D. A word in the right place. Nature 2007;445:698.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ramos SBV, Laederach A. Molecular biology: A second layer of information in RNA. Nature 2014;505:621–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Merico A, Tyrrell T, Wilson PA. Eocene/Oligocene ocean de-acidification linked to Antarctic glaciation by sea-level fall. Nature 2008;452:979–82.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li WKW, McLaughlin FA, Lovejoy C, Carmack EC. Smallest algae thrive as the Arctic Ocean freshens. Science 2009;326:539.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Caban S, Mehlführer C, Rupp M, Wrulich M. Evaluation of HSDPA and LTE. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Dupuy AJ, Largaespada DA, editors. Insertional Mutagenesis Strategies in Cancer Genetics. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Agarwal N, Galan M, Liu H, Subramanya S. Clustering of Blog Sites Using Collective Wisdom. In: Abraham A, Hassanien A-E, Sná¿el V, editors. Computational Social Network Analysis: Trends, Tools and Research Advances, London: Springer; 2010, p. 107–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Electrical Engineering.

Blog post
Fang J. Venus Express Prepares for its Summer Plunge. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Federal Agencies Need to Address Aging Legacy Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Turkel CC. Female leaders’ 360-degree self -perception accuracy for leadership competencies and skills. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. Review: ‘Keeping Up With the Joneses’ Might Not Be Worth It. New York Times 2016:C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Electrical Engineering
AbbreviationComput. Electr. Eng.
ISSN (print)0045-7906
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Control and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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