How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duffy MA. Epidemiology. It helps to be well connected. Science 344: 1229–1230, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
van’t Veer LJ, Bernards R. Enabling personalized cancer medicine through analysis of gene-expression patterns. Nature 452: 564–570, 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fan C, Li J, Wang L. Phase transitions, mechanical properties and electronic structures of novel boron phases under high-pressure: a first-principles study. Sci Rep 4: 6786, 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nakazato M, Murakami N, Date Y, Kojima M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K, Matsukura S. A role for ghrelin in the central regulation of feeding. Nature 409: 194–198, 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vignes A. Extractive Metallurgy 1. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
Mahlich J, Pascha W, editors. Korean Science and Technology in an International Perspective. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Daruich J, Manero E, Parietti A. The Liver and Surgery. In: Orthopedic Surgery in Patients with Hemophilia, edited by Caviglia HA, Solimeno LP. Milano: Springer, 2008, p. 33–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Physiology.

Blog post
Hale T. Priceless Specimens Destroyed In A Fire At India’s Natural History Museum [Online]. IFLScience IFLScience: 2016. [30 Oct. 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Human Services: Sustained and Coordinated Efforts Could Facilitate Data Sharing While Protecting Privacy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blanchard EJ. Legato trombone: A survey of pedagogical resources. University of Cincinnati: 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Neighbors Defend Park From a Soccer Invasion. New York Times: 148, 2002.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2, 4).
This sentence cites four references (2, 4, 6, 8).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Physiology
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Physiol.
ISSN (print)8750-7587
ISSN (online)1522-1601
Physiology (medical)

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