How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marx V. Tracking metastasis and tricking cancer. Nature 494: 133–136, 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
Epshtein V, Nudler E. Cooperation between RNA polymerase molecules in transcription elongation. Science 300: 801–805, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bongard J, Zykov V, Lipson H. Resilient machines through continuous self-modeling. Science 314: 1118–1121, 2006.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gilbert DA, Zimanyi GT, Dumas RK, Winklhofer M, Gomez A, Eibagi N, Vicent JL, Liu K. Quantitative decoding of interactions in tunable nanomagnet arrays using first order reversal curves. Sci Rep 4: 4204, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schneider KA. Counseling About Cancer. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
Wenclawiak BW, Koch M, Hadjicostas E, editors. Quality Assurance in Analytical Chemistry: Training and Teaching. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Liflyand E. Weighted Estimates for the Discrete Hilbert Transform. In: Methods of Fourier Analysis and Approximation Theory, edited by Ruzhansky M, Tikhonov S. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, p. 59–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Physiology.

Blog post
Luntz S. Stone Tools Indicate When Humans Started To Specialize. IFLScience IFLScience: 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stephenson JH. Ethics and morality in software development: A developer’s perspective. Capella University: 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Greenhouse L. A Case-by-Case Ruling on Discrimination. New York Times: A17, 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3, 4).
This sentence cites four references (4, 5, 7, 8).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Physiology
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Physiol.
ISSN (print)8750-7587
ISSN (online)1522-1601
Physiology (medical)

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