How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rempe G. Quantum optics. A photon steers a photon with an atom. Science 345: 871, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bshary R, Grutter AS. Image scoring and cooperation in a cleaner fish mutualism. Nature 441: 975–978, 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hubbell JA, Thomas SN, Swartz MA. Materials engineering for immunomodulation. Nature 462: 449–460, 2009.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lu S, Chen Y, Wu X, Wang Z, Li Y. Three-dimensional sulfur/graphene multifunctional hybrid sponges for lithium-sulfur batteries with large areal mass loading. Sci Rep 4: 4629, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robson Wright M. An Introduction to Chemical Kinetics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.
An edited book
Bronshtein IN. Handbook of Mathematics. 6th ed. 2015. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
von Weizsäcker EU. Contagious Knowledge: Contagion as a Quality Criterion for Disciplinary and Interdisciplinary Science. In: Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker: A Pioneer on Environmental, Climate and Energy Policies, edited by von Weizsäcker EU. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014, p. 34–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Physiology.

Blog post
Andrews R. These Freshly Erupted Hawaiian Lava Flows Are Nothing Short Of Spectacular. IFLScience IFLScience: 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Job Corps: Participant Selection and Performance Measurement Need to Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCain AK. Influence of market setting and time of purchase on counts of aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and coliform and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in beef, pork, and chicken in Vietnam. Mississippi State University: 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B. Bible Study Group Devolved Into a Lethal Sect. New York Times: A1, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2, 4).
This sentence cites four references (2, 4, 6, 8).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Physiology
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Physiol.
ISSN (print)8750-7587
ISSN (online)1522-1601
Physiology (medical)

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