How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wentworth P Jr. Tech.Sight. Antibody design by man and nature. Science 296: 2247–2249, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simpson GG, Dean C. Arabidopsis, the Rosetta stone of flowering time? Science 296: 285–289, 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shubin N, Tabin C, Carroll S. Deep homology and the origins of evolutionary novelty. Nature 457: 818–823, 2009.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zheng F, Wang Z, Kang W, Zhang P. Antiferromagnetic FeSe monolayer on SrTiO3: the charge doping and electric field effects. Sci Rep 3: 2213, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wen S, Huang P. Principles of Tribology. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, 2011.
An edited book
Schöll E, Klapp SHL, Hövel P, editors. Control of Self-Organizing Nonlinear Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Alden N. ‘Accompanied by Ghosts’: The Changing Uses of the Past in Sarah Waters’s Lesbian Fiction. In: Sarah Waters and Contemporary Feminisms, edited by Jones A, O’Callaghan C. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016, p. 61–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Science Debunks Fad Autism Theories, But That Doesn’t Dissuade Believers [Online]. IFLScience IFLScience: 2015. [30 Oct. 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Budget: Important Challenges Affecting Aviation Safety, Capacity, and Efficiency. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moreau GA. Touch and psychotherapy: A journey to the depths of the unconscious and back again. Pacifica Graduate Institute: 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. Savoring The Live Action. New York Times: ST9, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3, 4).
This sentence cites four references (4–6, 8).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Physiology
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Physiol.
ISSN (print)8750-7587
ISSN (online)1522-1601
Physiology (medical)

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