How to format your references using the Pediatric Infectious Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Infectious Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Doms RW. Immunology. Prime, boost, and broaden. Science. 2010;329(5995):1021-1022.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yan J, Aldrich RW. LRRC26 auxiliary protein allows BK channel activation at resting voltage without calcium. Nature. 2010;466(7305):513-516.
A journal article with 3 authors
Delamarre L, Mellman I, Yadav M. Cancer immunotherapy. Neo approaches to cancer vaccines. Science. 2015;348(6236):760-761.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fang Y, Wang C-F, Zhang Z-H, Shao H, Chen S. Robust self-healing hydrogels assisted by cross-linked nanofiber networks. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2811.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krysinski T, Malburet F. Mechanical Instability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Kumar A, Zhang D, eds. Ethics and Policy of Biometrics: Third International Conference on Ethics and Policy of Biometrics and International Data Sharing, ICEB 2010, Hong Kong, January 4-5, 2010. Revised Papers. Vol 6005. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Thomson DM, Cherniaev A, Telichev I. Conceptual Design of an “Umbrella” Spacecraft for Orbital Debris Shielding. In: Sgobba T, Rongier I, eds. Space Safety Is No Accident: The 7th IAASS Conference. Springer International Publishing; 2015:41-47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Infectious Disease.

Blog post
Andrews R. Two Back-To-Back Hurricanes Move Towards Hawaii For First Time In History. IFLScience. Published August 31, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Comments on Effect of P.L. 99-177 on Teacher Loan Cancellation Program]. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valdez K. Taking a closer look at the mental health services act of 2004: A policy analysis. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas R. An Undertaker’s Discovery Turns a Death Into a Murder Case. New York Times. December 16, 2015:A28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Infectious Disease
AbbreviationPediatr. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)2212-8328

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