How to format your references using the Pediatric Infectious Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Infectious Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Howie A. Akira Tonomura (1942-2012). Nature. 2012;486(7403):324.
A journal article with 2 authors
Merritt D, Ekers RD. Tracing black hole mergers through radio lobe morphology. Science. 2002;297(5585):1310-1313.
A journal article with 3 authors
Walsh JP, Cohen WM, Arora A. Science and the law. Working through the patent problem. Science. 2003;299(5609):1021.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kiefer W, Löw R, Wrachtrup J, Gerhardt I. Na-Faraday rotation filtering: the optimal point. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6552.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fabozzi FJ. Institutional Investment Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Casadio C, Coecke B, Moortgat M, Scott P, eds. Categories and Types in Logic, Language, and Physics: Essays Dedicated to Jim Lambek on the Occasion of His 90th Birthday. Vol 8222. Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
de Chiara C, Pastore A. Polyglutamine Diseases and Neurodegeneration: The Example of Ataxin-1. In: Brnjas-Kraljević J, Pifat-Mrzljak G, eds. Supramolecular Structure and Function 10. Springer Netherlands; 2011:87-99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Infectious Disease.

Blog post
Andrew D. Rip Currents Are A Natural Hazard Along Our Coasts – Here’s How To Spot Them. IFLScience. Published July 29, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Undeclared Air Shipments of Dangerous Goods and DOT’s Enforcement Approach. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pulsifer JE. Learning from the Uighurs: Correcting Inadequate Due Process in Terrorist Financing Sanction Regimes. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices, Already Split, Commence Work on a Polarizing New Docket. New York Times. October 1, 2007:A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Infectious Disease
AbbreviationPediatr. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)2212-8328

Other styles