How to format your references using the Pediatric Infectious Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Infectious Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rona PA. Geology. Resources of the sea floor. Science. 2003;299(5607):673-674.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cox RM, Calsbeek R. Cryptic sex-ratio bias provides indirect genetic benefits despite sexual conflict. Science. 2010;328(5974):92-94.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schirle NT, Sheu-Gruttadauria J, MacRae IJ. Structural basis for microRNA targeting. Science. 2014;346(6209):608-613.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu D, Duan Y-Y, Yang Z, Yu H-T. A new route for unburned carbon concentration measurements eliminating mineral content and coal rank effects. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4567.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wallgren A, Wallgren B. Register-Based Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Macintosh A, Ellis R, Allen T, eds. Applications and Innovations in Intelligent Systems XII: Proceedings of AI-2004, the Twenty-Fourth SGAI International Conference on Innovative Techniques and Applications of Artificial Intelligence. Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Altalag A, Road J, Wilcox P. Respiratory Muscle Function & Other Pulmonary Function Studies. In: Road J, Altalag A, eds. Pulmonary Function Tests in Clinical Practice. Springer; 2009:81-89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Infectious Disease.

Blog post
Hale T. An Alligator Has Been Found With A Human Body In Its Mouth In Florida. IFLScience. Published June 9, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Amtrak’s Strategic Business Plan: Progress to Date. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Al-Alawadhi F. Oral History of Women Educators in Kuwait: A Comparative Model of Care Ethics Between Noddings and Al-Ghazali. Published online 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Court Upholds Arizona Limits Imposed on Insanity Defense. New York Times. June 30, 2006:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Infectious Disease
AbbreviationPediatr. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)2212-8328

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