How to format your references using the Journal of Ultrasound citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ultrasound. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miller RA. Biomedicine. The anti-aging sweepstakes: catalase runs for the ROSes. Science 2005;308:1875–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
McMichael A, Klenerman P. HIV/AIDS. HLA leaves its footprints on HIV. Science 2002;296:1410–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Manabe M, Barrett PM, Isaji S. Palaeontology. A refugium for relics? Nature 2000;404:953.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gibson L, Lee TM, Koh LP, Brook BW, Gardner TA, Barlow J, et al. Primary forests are irreplaceable for sustaining tropical biodiversity. Nature 2011;478:378–81.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quinn JF. Dementia. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Margottini C, Canuti P, Sassa K, editors. Landslide Science and Practice: Volume 2: Early Warning, Instrumentation and Monitoring. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Neiderhiser JM. Gene–Environment Interplay Helps to Explain Influences of Family Relationships on Adolescent Adjustment and Development. In: Booth A, McHale SM, Landale NS, editors. Biosocial Foundations of Family Processes, New York, NY: Springer; 2011, p. 71–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ultrasound.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Tooth Be Told: Millions Of Years Of Evolutionary History Mark Those Molars. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Disability Assistance: Stronger Federal Oversight Could Help Assure Multiple Programs’ Accountability. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mendez H. Examination of friendship and burnout among child welfare workers. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas R. N.Y.U. Takes Cosby’s Name Off Workshop About Film. New York Times 2015:A28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ultrasound
ISSN (print)1971-3495

Other styles