How to format your references using the Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
W.R. Binns, Astronomy. Cosmic-ray origins, Science. 334 (2011) 1071–1072.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Lechler, E. Fuchs, Asymmetric cell divisions promote stratification and differentiation of mammalian skin, Nature. 437 (2005) 275–280.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Lupp, M. Skipper, U. Weiss, Gut microbes and health, Nature. 489 (2012) 219.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Lyall, R.M. Irvine, A. Sherman, T.J. McKinley, A. Núñez, A. Purdie, L. Outtrim, I.H. Brown, G. Rolleston-Smith, H. Sang, L. Tiley, Suppression of avian influenza transmission in genetically modified chickens, Science. 331 (2011) 223–226.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. Doerfler, Foreign DNA in Mammalian Systems, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany, 2007.
An edited book
C. Martius, I. Rudenko, J.P.A. Lamers, P.L.G. Vlek, eds., Cotton, Water, Salts and Soums: Economic and Ecological Restructuring in Khorezm, Uzbekistan, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Goss, F. Moretti, Providing Information and Involving the Patient in the Therapeutic Process, in: M. Rimondini (Ed.), Communication in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 71–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science.

Blog post
T. Hale, 2,000-Year-Old Lump Of Butter Dug Up From An Irish Bog, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Magnet Schools: Information on the Grant Award Process, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.L. Thornsberry, Freshman transition and its effectiveness on student success as measured by improved attendance, improved grades, decreased discipline referrals, and decreased dropout rate, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Hubbard, Overlooking Slights by Trump, Saudis Plan a Lavish Welcome, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science
AbbreviationElectron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci.
ISSN (print)1571-0661
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Theoretical Computer Science

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