How to format your references using the Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.L. Haag, Algae bloom again, Nature. 447 (2007) 520–521.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Gilfanov, A. Bogdán, An upper limit on the contribution of accreting white dwarfs to the type Ia supernova rate, Nature. 463 (2010) 924–925.
A journal article with 3 authors
Z. Jin, P. Li, D. Xiao, Enhanced electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction via active interfaces of layer-by-layered titanium nitride/titanium carbonitride structures, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6712.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B.K. Kaiser, D. Yim, I.-T. Chow, S. Gonzalez, Z. Dai, H.H. Mann, R.K. Strong, V. Groh, T. Spies, Disulphide-isomerase-enabled shedding of tumour-associated NKG2D ligands, Nature. 447 (2007) 482–486.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Y.J. Wind, C.F. Hays, Beyond Advertising, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
E.S. Robertson, ed., Cancer Associated Viruses, 1st ed., Springer US, Boston, MA, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
G.P. Jesi, A. Montresor, O. Babaoglu, Proximity-Aware Superpeer Overlay Topologies, in: A. Keller, J.-P. Martin-Flatin (Eds.), Self-Managed Networks, Systems, and Services: Second IEEE International Workshop, SelfMan 2006, Dublin, Ireland, June 16, 2006. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006: pp. 43–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science.

Blog post
T. Hale, One In Four People Have Sexual Fantasies About AI Voice Assistants Like Siri, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications Privacy: GSA’s Planned FTS 2000 Telephone Record Controls Appear Reasonable, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. Ren, Modification and Characterization of Ordered Mesoporous Carbons for Resorcinol Removal, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Hodara, A Painter of Clouds, Revisited, New York Times. (2015) CT8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science
AbbreviationElectron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci.
ISSN (print)1571-0661
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Theoretical Computer Science

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