How to format your references using the Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. McFarland, Chemistry. Unconventional chemistry for unconventional natural gas, Science. 338 (2012) 340–342.
A journal article with 2 authors
Z.R. Smith, J.A. Long, Control of Arabidopsis apical-basal embryo polarity by antagonistic transcription factors, Nature. 464 (2010) 423–426.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Kurtovic, A. Widmer, B.J. Dickson, A single class of olfactory neurons mediates behavioural responses to a Drosophila sex pheromone, Nature. 446 (2007) 542–546.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N.A. Sallee, G.M. Rivera, J.E. Dueber, D. Vasilescu, R.D. Mullins, B.J. Mayer, W.A. Lim, The pathogen protein EspF(U) hijacks actin polymerization using mimicry and multivalency, Nature. 454 (2008) 1005–1008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.K. Ballast, Interior Detailing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
B. Praetorius, Innovation for Sustainable Electricity Systems: Exploring the Dynamics of Energy Transitions, Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
L.S. Premo, Mobility and Cultural Diversity in Central-Place Foragers: Implications for the Emergence of Modern Human Behavior, in: A. Mesoudi, K. Aoki (Eds.), Learning Strategies and Cultural Evolution during the Palaeolithic, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2015: pp. 45–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science.

Blog post
J. Davis, How Do Deadly Mites Trick Honeybees?, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Electronic Government: Challenges Must Be Addressed With Effective Leadership and Management, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Holmstedt, Low voltage switched-current cell and its application, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.H.K. Choi, LaCroix Sparkling Water, New York Times. (2015) MM28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science
AbbreviationElectron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci.
ISSN (print)1571-0661
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Theoretical Computer Science

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