How to format your references using the Pediatric Critical Care Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Feringa BL: Chemistry. A new twist on chirality. Science 2001; 292:2021–2022
A journal article with 2 authors
Mercer J, Helenius A: Vaccinia virus uses macropinocytosis and apoptotic mimicry to enter host cells. Science 2008; 320:531–535
A journal article with 3 authors
Mashchenko S, Wadsley J, Couchman HMP: Stellar feedback in dwarf galaxy formation. Science 2008; 319:174–177
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Azoulay P, Graff-Zivin J, Uzzi B, et al.: Toward a more scientific science. Science 2018; 361:1194–1197

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rittereiser CM, Kochard LE: Top Hedge Fund Investors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Li J: From Multiscale Modeling to Meso-Science: A Chemical Engineering Perspective. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Lum C, Haberfeld M (maki), Fachner G, et al.: Police Activities to Counter Terrorism: What We Know and What We Need to Know. In: Weisburd D, Feucht T, Hakimi I, et al., editor(s). To Protect and To Serve: Policing in an Age of Terrorism. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. p. 101–141.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Critical Care Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S: Creationist Makes Significant Fossil Discovery And Won’t Accept That It’s 60 Million Years Old. IFLScience 2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: U.S. International Energy Research and Development Program Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Waugh DL: From forgotten to remembered: The long process of school desegregation in Chapel Hill, North Carolina and Prince Edward County, Virginia. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J: Even With Little Shut-Eye, Mets Turn Lights Out on Reds. New York Times 2016; B9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Critical Care Medicine
AbbreviationPediatr. Crit. Care Med.
ISSN (print)1529-7535
ISSN (online)1947-3893
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles