How to format your references using the Pathology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hovnanian JS. Let Armenia show why it’s the place for Sesame. Nature. 2000 Jun 1;405(6786):508.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mattila HR, Seeley TD. Genetic diversity in honey bee colonies enhances productivity and fitness. Science. 2007 Jul 20;317(5836):362–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen IA, Roberts RW, Szostak JW. The emergence of competition between model protocells. Science. 2004 Sep 3;305(5689):1474–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hoffmann AA, Montgomery BL, Popovici J, Iturbe-Ormaetxe I, Johnson PH, Muzzi F, et al. Successful establishment of Wolbachia in Aedes populations to suppress dengue transmission. Nature. 2011 Aug 24;476(7361):454–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Archer RD. Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2002.
An edited book
Darling LF, Erickson G, Clarke A, editors. Collective Improvisation in a Teacher Education Community. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. XVIII, 254 p. (Self Study of Teaching and Teacher Education Practices; vol. 4).
A chapter in an edited book
Atay FM. Controlling Oscillations in Nonlinear Systems with Delayed Output Feedback. In: Schöll E, Klapp SHL, Hövel P, editors. Control of Self-Organizing Nonlinear Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 65–79. (Understanding Complex Systems).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathology International.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. This Time-Lapse Of Cell Division In A Tadpole Egg Is Apparently Real [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Payroll Activities, Atlanta Postal Data Center. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972 Jan. Report No.: 089789.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Munn JE. Information Technology Certification Training Implementation: Exploratory Case Study of Air Force and Civilian Leaders Experiences [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. My Florida Recount Memory: Talking Justice. New York Times. 2010 Nov 21;WK10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePathology International
AbbreviationPathol. Int.
ISSN (print)1320-5463
ISSN (online)1440-1827
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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