How to format your references using the Pathology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Building cooperation New York. Nature. 2002 Sep 26;419(6905):4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elbert T, Heim S. A light and a dark side. Nature. 2001 May 10;411(6834):139.
A journal article with 3 authors
Qiu XH, Nazin GV, Ho W. Vibrationally resolved fluorescence excited with submolecular precision. Science. 2003 Jan 24;299(5606):542–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Blackmer T, Larsen EC, Takahashi M, Martin TF, Alford S, Hamm HE. G protein betagamma subunit-mediated presynaptic inhibition: regulation of exocytotic fusion downstream of Ca2+ entry. Science. 2001 Apr 13;292(5515):293–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Equipment Testing Procedures Committee of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Trayed and Packed Columns. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Epstein M. Material Inhomogeneities and their Evolution: A Geometric Approach. Elżanowski M, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. XIII, 261 p. (Interaction Mechanics, Mathematics).
A chapter in an edited book
Abdessameud A, Tayebi A. Rigid-Body Attitude Synchronization with Communication Delays. In: Tayebi A, editor. Motion Coordination for VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Attitude Synchronisation and Formation Control. London: Springer; 2013. p. 63–84. (Advances in Industrial Control).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathology International.

Blog post
Carpineti A. “Quantum Entangled” Laser Pointers Could Double Data Speed. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: FCC’s Performance Management Weaknesses Could Jeopardize Proposed Reforms of the Rural Health Care Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010 Nov. Report No.: GAO-11-27.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lytle SC. Giving voice to the past: New editions of select repertoire of the 26th Regiment Band, North Carolina troops, C.S.A [Doctoral dissertation]. [Cincinnati, OH]: University of Cincinnati; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. A Star With a Smile, Forever Kid. New York Times. 2012 Feb 17;B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePathology International
AbbreviationPathol. Int.
ISSN (print)1320-5463
ISSN (online)1440-1827
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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