How to format your references using the Pathology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Basu P. Forgotten lessons. Nature. 2010 Jul 15;466(7304):S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Turck F, Coupland G. Plant science. When vernalization makes sense. Science. 2011 Jan 7;331(6013):36–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bonsall MB, Jansen VAA, Hassell MP. Life history trade-offs assemble ecological guilds. Science. 2004 Oct 1;306(5693):111–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Deng J, Pan T, Xu Q, Chen M-Y, Zhang Y, Guo Q-X, et al. Linked strategy for the production of fuels via formose reaction. Sci Rep. 2013 Feb 7;3:1244.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walker M. Happy-People-Pills For All. Oxford, UK: Wiley Blackwell; 2013.
An edited book
Weyand B, Dominici M, Hass R, Jacobs R, Kasper C, editors. Mesenchymal Stem Cells - Basics and Clinical Application II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. VIII, 309 p. 26 illus., 23 illus. in color. (Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology; vol. 130).
A chapter in an edited book
Szymanek A. “Defence-in-Depth” Strategy in Transport Risk Management. In: Mikulski J, editor. Transport Systems Telematics: 10th Conference, TST 2010, Katowice – Ustroń, Poland, October 20-23, 2010 Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 51–8. (Communications in Computer and Information Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathology International.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Echoless Light Observed For The First Time [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Better Management Controls are Needed to Improve FAA’s Safety Enforcement and Compliance Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Jul. Report No.: GAO-04-646.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson CW. Breaking journalism down: Work, authority, and networking local news, 1997–2009 [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GEORGE GENE GUSTINES; Compiled by DAVE ITZKOFF. Superman’s Debut Comic Sells For $1 Million. New York Times. 2010 Feb 24;C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePathology International
AbbreviationPathol. Int.
ISSN (print)1320-5463
ISSN (online)1440-1827
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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