How to format your references using the Pathology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Angerer P. Graduate journal: PhD limitations. Nature. 2004 Oct 28;431(7012):1128.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ferreira PG, Starkman GD. Einstein’s theory of gravity and the problem of missing mass. Science. 2009 Nov 6;326(5954):812–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li C, Zhang T, Goldman DI. A terradynamics of legged locomotion on granular media. Science. 2013 Mar 22;339(6126):1408–12.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Leinders-Zufall T, Lane AP, Puche AC, Ma W, Novotny MV, Shipley MT, et al. Ultrasensitive pheromone detection by mammalian vomeronasal neurons. Nature. 2000 Jun 15;405(6788):792–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Qu D. Manufacturing and Managing Customer-Driven Derivatives. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Tok ME, Alkhater LRM, Pal LA, editors. Policy-Making in a Transformative State: The Case of Qatar. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. XVII, 405 p. 33 illus., 2 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Little D. Actor-Centered Sociology and the New Pragmatism. In: Zahle J, Collin F, editors. Rethinking the Individualism-Holism Debate: Essays in the Philosophy of Social Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 55–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathology International.

Blog post
Hale T. Meet Motobot: Yamaha’s Motocycle-Riding Robot [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety Hazards. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982 Aug. Report No.: 121320.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gada KK. Numerical analyses of passive and active flow control over a micro air vehicle with an optimized airfoil [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wieviorka M. France, at a loss without a struggle. New York Times. 2017 Feb 10;0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePathology International
AbbreviationPathol. Int.
ISSN (print)1320-5463
ISSN (online)1440-1827
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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