How to format your references using the Pathology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson M. Malaria. Nature. 2012 Apr 25;484(7395):S13.
A journal article with 2 authors
Groves JT, Boaz NC. Biochemistry. Fishing for peroxidase protons. Science. 2014 Jul 11;345(6193):142–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jia Y, Sanchez JA, Wangh LJ. Kinetic hairpin oligonucleotide blockers for selective amplification of rare mutations. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 1;4:5921.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Aluwihare A, Cohen-Tannoudji C, Erzan A, Jacob F, Polanyi J, van Dijk P, et al. In support of scientific exchange. Nature. 2002 Jun 13;417(6890):690.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liebhart R, Chandramouli D, Wong C, Merkel J. LTE for Public Safety. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Kryszkiewicz M, Bandyopadhyay S, Rybinski H, Pal SK, editors. Pattern Recognition and Machine Intelligence: 6th International Conference, PReMI 2015, Warsaw, Poland, June 30 - July 3, 2015, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XXVII, 588 p. 191 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 9124).
A chapter in an edited book
Lange C, Kuchenbuch A. Integrated Controlling Based on Material and Energy Flow Analysis — A Case Study in Foundry Industries. In: Wagner B, Enzler S, editors. Material Flow Management: Improving Cost Efficiency and Environmental Performance. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD; 2006. p. 91–129. (Sustainability and Innovation).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathology International.

Blog post
Luntz S. Bikini Island Is Still Very Radioactive Five Decades After Atomic Bomb Tests. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Land Management Systems: BLM Faces Risks in Completing the Automated Land and Mineral Record System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Mar. Report No.: AIMD-97-42.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Niedringhaus B. Best Practice in Early Reading Intervention: Implementing a Reading Intervention Program to Reach Below Level Readers [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz M, White R. Tractor-Trailer Kills 8-Year-Old Boy Walking to School in Queens. New York Times. 2013 Dec 21;A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePathology International
AbbreviationPathol. Int.
ISSN (print)1320-5463
ISSN (online)1440-1827
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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