How to format your references using the Hepatic Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hepatic Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gregory R. The blind leading the sighted. Nature. 430(7002), 836 (2004).
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhan Z, Barnett SA. An octane-fueled solid oxide fuel cell. Science. 308(5723), 844–847 (2005).
A journal article with 3 authors
Dian BC, Clarkson JR, Zwier TS. Direct measurement of energy thresholds to conformational isomerization in tryptamine. Science. 303(5661), 1169–1173 (2004).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Johnston RJ, Poholek AC, DiToro D, et al. Bcl6 and Blimp-1 are reciprocal and antagonistic regulators of T follicular helper cell differentiation. Science. 325(5943), 1006–1010 (2009).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zauderer E. Partial Differential Equations of Applied Mathematics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hötzl H, Möller P, Rosenthal E, editors. The Water of the Jordan Valley: Scarcity and Deterioration of Groundwater and its Impact on the Regional Development. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kosnik L. Breakthrough Demand-Capacity Management Strategies to Improve Hospital Flow, Safety, and Satisfaction. In: Patient Flow: Reducing Delay in Healthcare Delivery. Hall RW (Ed.), Springer US, Boston, MA, 101–122 (2006).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hepatic Oncology.

Blog post
Luntz S. Plague Outbreak In USA Is Traced To Pet Dog [Internet]. IFLScience (2015). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Developing State Automated Information Systems To Support Federal Assistance Programs: Problems and Opportunities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Byrne SM. Metabolic and pathological role of retinyl esters: The role of lecithin:retinol acyl transferase, (LRAT). (2008).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Maslin J. There’s a New Detective in Town, and She’s Fierce. New York Times, C4 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHepatic Oncology
AbbreviationHepat. Oncol.
ISSN (print)2045-0923
ISSN (online)2045-0931

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