How to format your references using the Hepatic Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hepatic Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crawley JN. Medicine. Testing hypotheses about autism. Science. 318(5847), 56–57 (2007).
A journal article with 2 authors
Vazquez JA, Reid MR. Probing the accumulation history of the voluminous Toba magma. Science. 305(5686), 991–994 (2004).
A journal article with 3 authors
Perryman SAM, Clark SJ, West JS. Splash dispersal of Phyllosticta citricarpa conidia from infected citrus fruit. Sci. Rep. 4, 6568 (2014).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rao H, Uhlmann F, Nasmyth K, Varshavsky A. Degradation of a cohesin subunit by the N-end rule pathway is essential for chromosome stability. Nature. 410(6831), 955–959 (2001).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bauer E, Adams R, Eustace D. Beyond Redundancy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Valsiner J, Molenaar PCM, Lyra MCDP, Chaudhary N, editors. Dynamic Process Methodology in the Social and Developmental Sciences. Springer US, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Bonacic C, Gimpel J, Goddard P. Animal Welfare and the Sustainable Use of the Vicuña. In: The Vicuña: The Theory and Practice of Community Based Wildlife Management. Gordon IJ (Ed.), Springer US, Boston, MA, 49–62 (2009).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hepatic Oncology.

Blog post
Andrew D. An End To Sleepless Nights? New Hope For Families Raising Children With ADHD [Internet]. IFLScience (2016). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Disadvantaged Students: Fiscal Oversight of Title I Could Be Improved. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huang J. Multispectral Imaging of Skin Oxygenation. (2013).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. When a Brooklyn Graveyard Can’t Expand Outward, It Looks Within. New York Times, A22 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHepatic Oncology
AbbreviationHepat. Oncol.
ISSN (print)2045-0923
ISSN (online)2045-0931

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