How to format your references using the Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Müller RD. Geophysics. Sedimentary basins feeling the heat from below. Science. 2010 Aug 13;329(5993):769–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
Livneh U, Zador A. Sensory systems: Sound processing takes motor control. Nature. 2014 Sep 11;513(7517):180–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rossa FD, Dercole F, Piccardi C. Profiling core-periphery network structure by random walkers. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1467.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Buckley GA, Brochu CA, Krause DW, Pol D. A pug-nosed crocodyliform from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Nature. 2000 Jun 22;405(6789):941–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kyan M, Muneesawang P, Jarrah K, Guan L. Unsupervised Learning. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Probst CW, Hankin C, Hansen RR, editors. Semantics, Logics, and Calculi: Essays Dedicated to Hanne Riis Nielson and Flemming Nielson on the Occasion of Their 60th Birthdays. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. X, 345 p. 96 illus. in color. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 9560).
A chapter in an edited book
Knopov PS, Deriyeva ON. Stochastic Processes in a Hilbert Space. In: Deriyeva ON, editor. Estimation and Control Problems for Stochastic Partial Differential Equations. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 155–75. (Springer Optimization and Its Applications).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Your Dog Can Tell When You’re Lying. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Public Assistance: PARIS Project Can Help States Reduce Improper Benefit Payments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Sep. Report No.: GAO-01-935.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ward S. Historiography, prophecy, and literature: “Divina retribución” and its underlying ideological agenda [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas R, Southall A. 5 From Baruch College Face Murder Charges in 2013 Fraternity Hazing. New York Times. 2015 Sep 15;A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePathology
ISSN (print)0031-3025
ISSN (online)1465-3931
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles