How to format your references using the Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Job movements. Nature. 2005 Feb 24;433(7028):901.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hughes S, Gurung S. Exploring the boundary between a siphon and barometer in a hypobaric chamber. Sci Rep. 2014 Apr 22;4:4741.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morewedge CK, Huh YE, Vosgerau J. Thought for food: imagined consumption reduces actual consumption. Science. 2010 Dec 10;330(6010):1530–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang H-P, Pan J-B, Zhang C, Ji N, Wang H, Ji Z-L. Network understanding of herb medicine via rapid identification of ingredient-target interactions. Sci Rep. 2014 Jan 16;4:3719.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chatterji S, Hedges P. Loan Workouts and Debt for Equity Swaps. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Ross AH, Abel SM, editors. The Juvenile Skeleton in Forensic Abuse Investigations. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2011. X, 205 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Apple DF, Brown C, Hudson LM. The Role of Orthosis in Spinal Injury. In: Patel VV, Burger E, Brown CW, editors. Spine Trauma: Surgical Techniques. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 85–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Time-Lapse Footage From ISS Gives Spectacular Aerial View of Earth at Night [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Air Marshal Service: Actions Taken to Fulfill Core Mission and Address Workforce Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Jul. Report No.: GAO-09-903T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Corral DC. A grant proposal: Parent and adolescent support group [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. A Proposal for Drawing a Clearer Picture of Public Pension Finances. New York Times. 2011 Jul 8;B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePathology
ISSN (print)0031-3025
ISSN (online)1465-3931
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles