How to format your references using the Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Solow RM. Retrospective. Paul A. Samuelson (1915-2009). Science. 2010 Jan 15;327(5963):282.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jackson JB, Johnson KG. Paleoecology. Measuring past biodiversity. Science. 2001 Sep 28;293(5539):2401–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Harris RA, Rogers J, Milosavljevic A. Human-specific changes of genome structure detected by genomic triangulation. Science. 2007 Apr 13;316(5822):235–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Guo L, Winzer T, Yang X, Li Y, Ning Z, He Z, et al. The opium poppy genome and morphinan production. Science. 2018 Oct 19;362(6412):343–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grinshpan L. Solving Enterprise Applications Performance Puzzles. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Weichold M, Hamdi M, Shakir MZ, Abdallah M, Karagiannidis GK, Ismail M, editors. Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks: 10th International Conference, CROWNCOM 2015, Doha, Qatar, April 21-23, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XV, 805 p. 341 illus. in color. (Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering; vol. 156).
A chapter in an edited book
Benz A, Salfner F. Discourse Structuring Questions and Scalar Implicatures. In: Bezhanishvili G, Löbner S, Marra V, Richter F, editors. Logic, Language, and Computation: 9th International Tbilisi Symposium on Logic, Language, and Computation, TbiLLC 2011, Kutaisi, Georgia, September 26-30, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 35–50. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathology.

Blog post
Fang J. Malagasy Songbird Is Rare Instance Of Evolution Working “Backwards.” IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Communications: Actions Needed to Ensure Advanced High Frequency Radios Interoperate. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Mar. Report No.: NSIAD-89-84.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lefebvre K. Racial Prejudice, Individualism, and Political Identity: Understanding the Forty-Year Trend of Anti-Welfare Spending Preferences [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Nation of Individuals Sees Tennis Identity Fade. New York Times. 2010 Sep 7;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePathology
ISSN (print)0031-3025
ISSN (online)1465-3931
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles