How to format your references using the Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A. ASIAN-AMERICAN SCIENTISTS: New Breed of Protester Asks: Why Not Us? Science. 2000 Nov 10;290(5494):1075.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stengel M, Spaldin NA. Origin of the dielectric dead layer in nanoscale capacitors. Nature. 2006 Oct 12;443(7112):679–82.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meng J, Wang Y, Li C. Transitional mammalian middle ear from a new Cretaceous Jehol eutriconodont. Nature. 2011 Apr 14;472(7342):181–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Vanroose W, Martín F, Rescigno TN, McCurdy CW. Complete photo-induced breakup of the H2 molecule as a probe of molecular electron correlation. Science. 2005 Dec 16;310(5755):1787–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Darbyshire P, Hampton D. Hedge Fund Modelling and Analysis Using Excel and VBA. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2012.
An edited book
Wang ZW, editor. Molecular Mechanisms of Neurotransmitter Release. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2008. XIII, 347 p. (Contemporary Neuroscience).
A chapter in an edited book
Zaitch D, Staring R. The Flesh is Weak, the Spirit Even Weaker Clients and Trafficked Women in the Netherlands. In: Nicola AD, Cauduro A, Lombardi M, Ruspini P, editors. Prostitution and Human Trafficking: Focus on Clients. New York, NY: Springer; 2009. p. 67–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathology.

Blog post
Andrew E. ‘I Could Sow The Seeds Of A New Civilisation’: Mars One Hopeful’s Vision Of A Stellar Future. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Planning: Allegations of Inadequate Procurements at the National Archives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Apr. Report No.: IMTEC-88-34.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tan SW. A pedagogical approach to selected études from Étude en douze exercices, S.136 and Études d ’exécution transcendante, S.139 by Franz Liszt [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walker M. Choosing Photographs Over Paintings. New York Times. 2017 Jun 8;C14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePathology
ISSN (print)0031-3025
ISSN (online)1465-3931
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles