How to format your references using the Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Tauris TM. Spin-down of radio millisecond pulsars at genesis. Science. 2012 Feb 3;335(6068):561–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Jensen ELN, Akeson R. Misaligned protoplanetary disks in a young binary star system. Nature. 2014 Jul 31;511(7511):567–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Izawa Y, Pun D, Stahl SS. Palladium-catalyzed aerobic dehydrogenation of substituted cyclohexanones to phenols. Science. 2011 Jul 8;333(6039):209–13.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Dymond JS, Richardson SM, Coombes CE, Babatz T, Muller H, Annaluru N, et al. Synthetic chromosome arms function in yeast and generate phenotypic diversity by design. Nature. 2011 Sep 14;477(7365):471–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Zack GM. Financial Statement Fraud. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Allen T, Ellis R, Petridis M, editors. Applications and Innovations in Intelligent Systems XVI: Proceedings of AI-2008, the Twenty-eighth SGAI International Conference on Innovative Techniques and Applications of Artificial Intelligence. London: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Dissanayake CB, Chandrajith R. Medical Geology of Fluoride. In: Chandrajith R, editor. Introduction to Medical Geology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 59–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathology.

Blog post
1.
Taub B. Rice And Wheat Production Use More Water Than All Other Crops Put Together. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. The Army’s Risk Assessment of Chemical Munitions Transportation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Oct. Report No.: T-NSIAD-88-2.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Gowda V. Pollination biology and inter-island geographical variation in the mutualistic Heliconia (Heliconiaceae)-hummingbird (Trochilidae) interaction of the Eastern Caribbean Islands [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Lichtblau E. Poised to Seek Change as Attorney General. New York Times. 2016 Nov 18;A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePathology
AbbreviationPathology
ISSN (print)0031-3025
ISSN (online)1465-3931
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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