How to format your references using the Health Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Postle K. 2002. Close before opening. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295(5560): 1658–1659.
A journal article with 2 authors
Howard JAK, Probert MR. 2014. Cutting-edge techniques used for the structural investigation of single crystals. Science (New York, N.Y.) 343(6175): 1098–1102.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gubbins D, Jones AL, Finlay CC. 2006. Fall in Earth’s magnetic field is erratic. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312(5775): 900–902.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Scheffler M, Dressel M, Jourdan M, Adrian H. 2005. Extremely slow Drude relaxation of correlated electrons. Nature 438(7071): 1135–1137.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Packard A. 2010. Digital Media Law. Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK.
An edited book
de Noya B. 2015. Trypanosoma Cruzi as a Foodborne Pathogen. 1st ed. 2015. González O, Robertson LJ (eds). Springer International Publishing: Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Dahlstedt ÅG, Persson A. 2005. Requirements Interdependencies: State of the Art and Future Challenges, In Engineering and Managing Software Requirements, Aurum A, Wohlin C (eds). Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg; 95–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Economics.

Blog post
Andrew D. 2017. Our Experiments Taught Us Why People Troll. IFLScience. Available from: [Accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1981. Achieving Greater Economies in Data Processing in Federal Government. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lord V. 2015. Defining Eating Disorder Recovery: A Qualitative Approach. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR. 2017. Gods Get Ready for a New Holiday. New York Times: C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Postle, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Postle, 2002; Howard and Probert, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Howard and Probert, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Scheffler et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Economics
AbbreviationHealth Econ.
ISSN (online)1099-1050
ScopeHealth Policy

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