How to format your references using the Health Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Derry LA. 2006. Atmospheric science. Fungi, weathering, and the emergence of animals. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311(5766): 1386–1387.
A journal article with 2 authors
Buschman TJ, Miller EK. 2007. Top-down versus bottom-up control of attention in the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315(5820): 1860–1862.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tanner C, Manca C, Leutwyler S. 2003. Probing the threshold to H atom transfer along a hydrogen-bonded ammonia wire. Science (New York, N.Y.) 302(5651): 1736–1739.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Valenzuela CD, Carriedo GA, Valenzuela ML, Zúñiga L, O’Dwyer C. 2013. Solid state pathways to complex shape evolution and tunable porosity during metallic crystal growth. Scientific Reports 3: 2642.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murdoch I, Turpin S, Johnston B, MacLullich A, Losman E. 2014. Geriatric Emergencies. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Zschocke J, Baumgartner M, Morava E, Patterson M, Rahman S, Peters V eds. 2015. JIMD Reports, Volume 24. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Hayakawa H. 2016. Bounded Rationality, Social and Cultural Norms, and Interdependence via Reference Groups, In Behavioral Interactions, Markets, and Economic Dynamics: Topics in Behavioral Economics, Ikeda S, Kato HK, Ohtake F, Tsutsui Y (eds). Springer Japan: Tokyo; 101–139.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Economics.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. Astronomers Measure Exoplanet’s Day For The First Time. IFLScience. Available from:’s-day-first-time/ [Accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. The Impact of Federal Commodity Donations on the School Lunch Program. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGowan HC. 2008. The Military Experience: Perceptions from Senior Military Officers’ Wives. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University: Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. 2017. Bahrain Executes 3 Shiites Convicted in Deadly Bomb Attack on the Police. New York Times: A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Derry, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Derry, 2006; Buschman and Miller, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Buschman and Miller, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Valenzuela et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Economics
AbbreviationHealth Econ.
ISSN (online)1099-1050
ScopeHealth Policy

Other styles