How to format your references using the Health Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cuffey KM. 2011. Geophysics. Antarctic ice flow revealed. Science (New York, N.Y.) 333(6048): 1386–1387.
A journal article with 2 authors
Conway TM, John SG. 2014. Quantification of dissolved iron sources to the North Atlantic Ocean. Nature 511(7508): 212–215.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kokoeva MV, Yin H, Flier JS. 2005. Neurogenesis in the hypothalamus of adult mice: potential role in energy balance. Science (New York, N.Y.) 310(5748): 679–683.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Anopheles gambiae 1000 Genomes Consortium, Data analysis group, Partner working group, Sample collections—Angola:, Burkina Faso:, Cameroon:, Gabon:, Guinea:, Guinea-Bissau:, Kenya:, Uganda:, Crosses:, Sequencing and data production, Web application development, Project coordination. 2017. Genetic diversity of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Nature 552(7683): 96–100.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hahn A, Behle B, Lischewski D, Rein W. 2002. Produktionstechnische Praxis. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Kumar S. 2011. Concrete Fracture Models and Applications. Barai SV (ed). Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Quintero J, Venkatasubramanian VM. 2009. A Real-Time Wide-Area Controller for Mitigating Small-Signal Instability, In Inter-Area Oscillations in Power Systems: A Nonlinear and Nonstationary Perspective, Messina AR (ed). Springer US: Boston, MA; 127–157.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Economics.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. 10 Bizarre Medical Conditions. IFLScience. Available from: [Accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. District of Columbia Opportunity Scholarship Program: Actions Needed to Address Weaknesses in Administration and Oversight. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilensky SE. 2010. 340B Prime Vendor Program: Health Center Decision Making and Barriers to Participation. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University: Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nechepurenko I. 2017. Kremlin Group Viewed As a Propaganda Mill. New York Times: A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cuffey, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Cuffey, 2011; Conway and John, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Conway and John, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Anopheles gambiae 1000 Genomes Consortium et al., 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Economics
AbbreviationHealth Econ.
ISSN (online)1099-1050
ScopeHealth Policy

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