How to format your references using the Health Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. 2002. Grappling for grants. Nature 419(6909): 3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blake C, Wall J. 2002. A velocity dipole in the distribution of radio galaxies. Nature 416(6877): 150–152.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scarano F, Guimarães A, da Silva JM. 2012. Rio+20: Lead by example. Nature 486(7401): 25–26.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wu W, Wang C, Li Q, Ye C, Qin J, Li Z. 2014. The influence of pentafluorophenyl groups on the nonlinear optical (NLO) performance of high generation dendrons and dendrimers. Scientific Reports 4: 6101.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MacRoberts. 2014. MacRoberts on Scottish Construction Contracts. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Shingareva I. 2007. Maple and Mathematica: A Problem Solving Approach for Mathematics. Lizàrraga-Celaya C (ed). Springer: Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Sánchez L, Lanza J, Muñoz L. 2007. Federating Personal Networks over Heterogeneous Ad-hoc Scenarios, In Personal Wireless Communications: The 12th IFIP International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications (PWC 2007), Prague, Czech Republic, September 2007, Bestak R, Simak B, Kozlowska E (eds). Springer US: Boston, MA; 38–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Economics.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2016. Newton’s Apple Tree Genome Sequenced For Comparison With Modern Trees. IFLScience. Available from: [Accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1972. Achievements, Cost, and Administration of the Ocean Sediment Coring Program. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bible PW. 2013. Integrating Heterogeneous Datasets for Functional Profiling of Transcription Factors and Their Target Genes. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ. 2017. Walmart to Acquire Bonobos for $310 Million. New York Times: B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2002; Blake and Wall, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blake and Wall, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Economics
AbbreviationHealth Econ.
ISSN (online)1099-1050
ScopeHealth Policy

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