How to format your references using the Health Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johnston LA. 2009. Competitive interactions between cells: death, growth, and geography. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324(5935): 1679–1682.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stelter P, Ulrich HD. 2003. Control of spontaneous and damage-induced mutagenesis by SUMO and ubiquitin conjugation. Nature 425(6954): 188–191.
A journal article with 3 authors
Acquisti A, Brandimarte L, Loewenstein G. 2015. Privacy and human behavior in the age of information. Science (New York, N.Y.) 347(6221): 509–514.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hou S-Y, Sheng Y-B, Feng G-R, Long G-L. 2014. Experimental optimal single qubit purification in an NMR quantum information processor. Scientific Reports 4: 6857.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Campbell CA, Collins M. 2010. The One-Page Project Manager for Execution. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Maltz MD, Rice SK eds. 2015. Envisioning Criminology: Researchers on Research as a Process of Discovery. Springer International Publishing: Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Figueroa I, Tabareau N, Tanter É. 2014. Effective Aspects: A Typed Monadic Embedding of Pointcuts and Advice, In Transactions on Aspect-Oriented Software Development XI, Chiba S, Tanter É, Bodden E, Maoz S, Kienzle J (eds). Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg; 145–192.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Economics.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2014. John Oliver Does Science Communication Right. IFLScience. Available from: [Accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Surface Transportation: Efforts to Address Highway Congestion through Real-Time Traffic Information Systems Are Expanding but Face Implementation Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alvarez C. 2015. Support Groups for Children of Depressed Parents: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. 2011. Reprieve Of Sorts In a Costly Blunder. New York Times: B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Johnston, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Johnston, 2009; Stelter and Ulrich, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stelter and Ulrich, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Hou et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Economics
AbbreviationHealth Econ.
ISSN (online)1099-1050
ScopeHealth Policy

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