How to format your references using the Nursing Outlook citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nursing Outlook. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gelfand, M. (2013). What is to be done about Russian science? Nature, 500(7463), 379.
A journal article with 2 authors
del Giorgio, P. A., & Duarte, C. M. (2002). Respiration in the open ocean. Nature, 420(6914), 379–384.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ryu, H.-W., Park, C.-W., & Ryu, K.-Y. (2014). Disruption of polyubiquitin gene Ubb causes dysregulation of neural stem cell differentiation with premature gliogenesis. Scientific Reports, 4, 7026.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zheng, A. Y., Lawhorn, J. K., Lumley, T., & Freeman, S. (2008). Assessment. Application of Bloom’s taxonomy debunks the “MCAT myth.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5862), 414–415.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minei, I., & Lucek, J. (2006). MPLS-Enabled Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Azar, A. T., & Vaidyanathan, S. (Eds.). (2015). Computational Intelligence Applications in Modeling and Control (Vol. 575). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Helmers, J., Rückmann, J.-J., & Werner, R. (2016). Tight Semi-model-free Bounds on (Bilateral) CVA. In K. Glau, Z. Grbac, M. Scherer, & R. Zagst (Eds.), Innovations in Derivatives Markets: Fixed Income Modeling, Valuation Adjustments, Risk Management, and Regulation (pp. 83–101). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nursing Outlook.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, December 5). Breakthrough Prize Awards World’s Top Scientists At “Oscars” of Science. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Public Transportation: New Starts Program Challenges and Preliminary Observations on Expediting Project Development (GAO-09-763T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peterson, K. (2015). Development of a facility-specific dietary training program for diet technicians [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tierney, J. (2016, December 12). The Perfect Gift? It’s the One They Asked For. New York Times, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gelfand, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (del Giorgio & Duarte, 2002; Gelfand, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (del Giorgio & Duarte, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Ryu et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zheng et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleNursing Outlook
AbbreviationNurs. Outlook
ISSN (print)0029-6554
ScopeGeneral Nursing

Other styles