How to format your references using the Nursing Outlook citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nursing Outlook. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Szyszka, P. (2014). Ecology. Follow the odor. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6191), 1454.
A journal article with 2 authors
Des Marais, D. L., & Rausher, M. D. (2008). Escape from adaptive conflict after duplication in an anthocyanin pathway gene. Nature, 454(7205), 762–765.
A journal article with 3 authors
Staver, A. C., Archibald, S., & Levin, S. A. (2011). The global extent and determinants of savanna and forest as alternative biome states. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6053), 230–232.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Meyer, W. K., Jamison, J., Richter, R., Woods, S. E., Partha, R., Kowalczyk, A., Kronk, C., Chikina, M., Bonde, R. K., Crocker, D. E., Gaspard, J., Lanyon, J. M., Marsillach, J., Furlong, C. E., & Clark, N. L. (2018). Ancient convergent losses of Paraoxonase 1 yield potential risks for modern marine mammals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 361(6402), 591–594.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Delgrossi, L., & Zhang, T. (2012). Vehicle Safety Communications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Matranga, V. (Ed.). (2005). Echinodermata (Vol. 39). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, L., Wu, K., & Hamdi, M. (2014). Applications to Classic Problems. In K. Wu & M. Hamdi (Eds.), Attachment Transmission in Wireless Networks (pp. 29–57). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nursing Outlook.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, June 18). Channel-Hopping Moth Plague: Our Clothes Are Safe, But Mind The Cabbages. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Weather Forecasting: Radar Availability Requirement Not Being Met (AIMD-95-132). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, C. S. (2017). Electronic Transport of Thin Crystals in Ruthenium Chloride [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2017, September 26). Harlem Rezoning Proposal Would Create Memorial To African Burial Ground. New York Times, A28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Szyszka, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Des Marais & Rausher, 2008; Szyszka, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Des Marais & Rausher, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Staver et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Meyer et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleNursing Outlook
AbbreviationNurs. Outlook
ISSN (print)0029-6554
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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