How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neurocritical and Neurohospitalist Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neurocritical and Neurohospitalist Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weisel, J. W. (2008). Biophysics. Enigmas of blood clot elasticity. Science 320, 456–457.
A journal article with 2 authors
Phadnis, N., and Orr, H. A. (2009). A single gene causes both male sterility and segregation distortion in Drosophila hybrids. Science 323, 376–379.
A journal article with 3 authors
Broza, Y. Y., Zuri, L., and Haick, H. (2014). Combined volatolomics for monitoring of human body chemistry. Sci. Rep. 4, 4611.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Keesing, F., Belden, L. K., Daszak, P., Dobson, A., Harvell, C. D., Holt, R. D., et al. (2010). Impacts of biodiversity on the emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. Nature 468, 647–652.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Botto, F. (2003). Dictionary of e-Business. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Khan, M. S., Zaidi, A., and Musarrat, J. eds. (2014). Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms: Principles and Application of Microphos Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Pedersen, A. (2016). “Frameworks for Tourism as a Development Strategy,” in Reframing Sustainable Tourism Environmental Challenges and Solutions., eds. S. F. McCool and K. Bosak (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 47–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neurocritical and Neurohospitalist Care.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2017). East African Hunter-Gatherer Research Suggests The Human Microbiome Is An Ecological Disaster Zone. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1984). Major Federal Research and Development Agencies Are Implementing the Patent and Trademark Amendments of 1980. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Husted, C. L. (2008). Systematic differentiation between Dark and Light Leaders: Is a corporate criminal profile possible?

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007). Dwindling Funds Jeopardize Immigrant Center. New York Times, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weisel, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Weisel, 2008; Phadnis and Orr, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Phadnis and Orr, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Keesing et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neurocritical and Neurohospitalist Care
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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