How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neurocritical and Neurohospitalist Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neurocritical and Neurohospitalist Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pleasants, S. (2014). Epidemiology: a moving target. Nature 515, S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fujiwara, M., and Caswell, H. (2001). Demography of the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Nature 414, 537–541.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bobrov, K., Mayne, A. J., and Dujardin, G. (2001). Atomic-scale imaging of insulating diamond through resonant electron injection. Nature 413, 616–619.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Reineke, J., Tenzer, S., Rupnik, M., Koschinski, A., Hasselmayer, O., Schrattenholz, A., et al. (2007). Autocatalytic cleavage of Clostridium difficile toxin B. Nature 446, 415–419.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sturges, R. H., Jr (2014). Practical Field Robotics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Angel, J. L., Torres-Gil, F., and Markides, K. eds. (2012). Aging, Health, and Longevity in the Mexican-Origin Population. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramirez, G. A., and Manfredi, A. A. (2016). “Pathogenic Role of ANCA in Small Vessel Inflammation and Neutrophil Function,” in Systemic Vasculitides: Current Status and Perspectives, eds. F. Dammacco, D. Ribatti, and A. Vacca (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 43–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neurocritical and Neurohospitalist Care.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015). What Really Is A Planet? New Definition Solves Dilemma. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). Environmental Protection Agency: Comparing Annual Budgets for Science and Technology. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nelson, P. T. (2008). Sound as a gateway to a personal relationship with nature.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dwyer, K. P. (2005). An Employee, Hired as a Man, Becomes a Woman. Now What? New York Times, 101.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pleasants, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Fujiwara and Caswell, 2001; Pleasants, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fujiwara and Caswell, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Reineke et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neurocritical and Neurohospitalist Care
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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