How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neurocritical and Neurohospitalist Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neurocritical and Neurohospitalist Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tsiganis, K. (2015). Planetary science: How the Solar System didn’t form. Nature 528, 202–204.
A journal article with 2 authors
Class, C., and Goldstein, S. L. (2005). Evolution of helium isotopes in the Earth’s mantle. Nature 436, 1107–1112.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gnone, G., Moriconi, T., and Gambini, G. (2006). Sleep behaviour: activity and sleep in dolphins. Nature 441, E10-1; discussion E11.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu, Q., Rand, T. A., Kalidas, S., Du, F., Kim, H.-E., Smith, D. P., et al. (2003). R2D2, a bridge between the initiation and effector steps of the Drosophila RNAi pathway. Science 301, 1921–1925.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
German Geotechnical Society (2013). Recommendations on Excavations EAB. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Iwata, H. (2013). Formulas, Ingredients and Production of Cosmetics: Technology of Skin- and Hair-Care Products in Japan. , ed. K. Shimada Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Grünig, R., and Morschett, D. (2012). “Strategic planning of a domestic company as the starting point for going international,” in Developing International Strategies: Going and Being International for Medium-sized Companies, ed. D. Morschett (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 65–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neurocritical and Neurohospitalist Care.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Cave Engraving May Be First Example Of Neanderthal Artwork. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987). The Need for Strong Central Oversight of the Federal Government’s War on Drugs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Flores, M. Y. (2010). Delinquency prevention program for Latino youth: A grant proposal project.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J. (2016). ‘I Don’t Look Back.’ New York Times, MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tsiganis, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Class and Goldstein, 2005; Tsiganis, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Class and Goldstein, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neurocritical and Neurohospitalist Care
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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