How to format your references using the Pathogens citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathogens. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buchen, L. Cancer: Missing the Mark. Nature 2011, 471, 428–432.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hashizume, K.; Chaussidon, M. A Non-Terrestrial 16O-Rich Isotopic Composition for the Protosolar Nebula. Nature 2005, 434, 619–622.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karl, M.; Nowak, B.; Gasenzer, T. Tuning Universality Far from Equilibrium. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2394.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Djamei, A.; Pitzschke, A.; Nakagami, H.; Rajh, I.; Hirt, H. Trojan Horse Strategy in Agrobacterium Transformation: Abusing MAPK Defense Signaling. Science 2007, 318, 453–456.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, J.B. Bandwidth Efficient Coding; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2017; ISBN 9781119345244.
An edited book
Statistical Atlases and Computational Models of the Heart. Imaging and Modelling Challenges: 4th International Workshop, STACOM 2013, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2013, Nagoya, Japan, September 26, 2013. Revised Selected Papers; Camara, O., Mansi, T., Pop, M., Rhode, K., Sermesant, M., Young, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; Vol. 8330; ISBN 9783642542671.
A chapter in an edited book
Derval, D.; Bremer, J. Find the Perfect Balance. In Hormones, Talent, and Career: Unlock Your Hormonal Quotient®; Bremer, J., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Business; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 71–82 ISBN 9783642257124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathogens.

Blog post
Andrew, D. Study Finds Some Female Fish Evolve Bigger Brains When Males Have Bigger Genitals Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office BPA Management of ADP Systems Development Activities; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1978;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huber, J.A. Building an Army: A Corollary Study of Group Interaction and Group Productivity. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Justices Divided On Protections Over Wetlands. New York Times 2006, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePathogens
ISSN (online)2076-0817

Other styles