How to format your references using the Pathogens citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathogens. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goodman, S. Pressure Grows over US Blood Ban. Nature 2001, 412, 467.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brosnan, S.F.; de Waal, F.B.M. Evolution of Responses to (Un)Fairness. Science 2014, 346, 1251776.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, C.; de Grijs, R.; Deng, L. The Exclusion of a Significant Range of Ages in a Massive Star Cluster. Nature 2014, 516, 367–369.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bidoia, C.; Misgeld, T.; Weinzierl, E.; Buffelli, M.; Feng, G.; Cangiano, A.; Lichtman, J.W.; Sanes, J.R. Comment on “Reelin Promotes Peripheral Synapse Elimination and Maturation.” Science 2004, 303, 1977; author reply 1977.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berg, M.C. The Fourier-Analytic Proof of Quadratic Reciprocity; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2000; ISBN 9781118032947.
An edited book
Vocationalisation of Secondary Education Revisited; Maclean, R., Wilson, D.N., Lauglo, J., Eds.; UNESCO-UNEVOC Book Series Technical and Vocational Education and Training: Issues, Concerns and Prospects; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2005; Vol. 1; ISBN 9781402030314.
A chapter in an edited book
Krasińska, M.; Krasiński, Z.A. The Original Range of the Species Bison Bonasus (L.). In European Bison: The Nature Monograph; Krasiński, Z.A., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 41–43 ISBN 9783642365546.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathogens.

Blog post
Luntz, S. How Termites Came To Build The World’s Greatest “Skyscrapers” (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Elementary School Children: Many Change Schools Frequently, Harming Their Education; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koblick, D.C. Parallel High-Precision Orbit Propagation Using the Modified Picard-Chebyshev Method. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K. Keep ’Em Coming. New York Times 2007, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePathogens
ISSN (online)2076-0817

Other styles