How to format your references using the Pathogens citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathogens. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Peik, E. Physics. Logical Spectroscopy. Science 2005, 309, 710–711.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hågvar, S.; Ohlson, M. Ancient Carbon from a Melting Glacier Gives High 14C Age in Living Pioneer Invertebrates. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2820.
A journal article with 3 authors
Abel, T.; Bryan, G.L.; Norman, M.L. The Formation of the First Star in the Universe. Science 2002, 295, 93–98.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Langdon, E.M.; Qiu, Y.; Ghanbari Niaki, A.; McLaughlin, G.A.; Weidmann, C.A.; Gerbich, T.M.; Smith, J.A.; Crutchley, J.M.; Termini, C.M.; Weeks, K.M.; et al. MRNA Structure Determines Specificity of a PolyQ-Driven Phase Separation. Science 2018, 360, 922–927.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knudsen, S. A Biologist’s Guide to Analysis of DNA Microarray Data; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471227588.
An edited book
Becerra, H.M. Visual Control of Wheeled Mobile Robots: Unifying Vision and Control in Generic Approaches; Sagüés, C., Ed.; Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; Vol. 103; ISBN 9783319057828.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, Y.; Yang, Z. Range-Based Network Localization. In Location, Localization, and Localizability: Location-awareness Technology for Wireless Networks; Yang, Z., Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, 2011; pp. 37–54 ISBN 9781441973702.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathogens.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Eyes In The Sky: Cutting NASA Earth Observations Would Be A Costly Mistake (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Analysis of Migration Characteristics of Children Served Under the Migrant Education Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1983;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Churney, K. Drawing and Multimodality Communication Training as an Effective Treatment Option for Individuals with Nonfluent Aphasia. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. A Brutal Season of Prison Siege. New York Times 2017, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePathogens
ISSN (online)2076-0817

Other styles