How to format your references using the Pathogens citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathogens. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ferguson, S.M. MEDICINE. Membrane Traffic En Route to Cancer. Science 2015, 350, 162–163.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allsop, D.J.; West, S.A. Life History: Changing Sex at the Same Relative Body Size. Nature 2003, 425, 783–784.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barnes, W.L.; Dereux, A.; Ebbesen, T.W. Surface Plasmon Subwavelength Optics. Nature 2003, 424, 824–830.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, K.; Jessop, H.; Suswillo, R.; Zaman, G.; Lanyon, L. Endocrinology: Bone Adaptation Requires Oestrogen Receptor-Alpha. Nature 2003, 424, 389.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen, W.; Xiao, H.; Wang, Q.; Zhao, L.; Zhu, M. Integrated Vehicle Dynamics and Control; John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd: Singapore, 2016; ISBN 9781118380000.
An edited book
Breast, Endocrine and Surgical Oncology; Coventry, B.J., Ed.; Surgery: Complications, Risks and Consequences; Springer: London, 2014; ISBN 9781447154204.
A chapter in an edited book
Rigo, E. Citizens and Foreigners in the Enlarged Europe. In Spreading Democracy and the Rule of Law?: The Impact of EU Enlargement on the Rule of Law, Democracy and Constitutionalism in Post-Communist Legal Orders; Sadurski, W., Czarnota, A., Krygier, M., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2006; pp. 97–119 ISBN 9781402038419.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathogens.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Black Holes In Colliding Galaxies Might Be Ripping Stars Apart More Frequently Than Thought (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Areas Needing Improvement in the Adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1980;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harper, T. Going Public, Staying Private, and Everything in Between. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona: Tucson, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D.; Cooper, H.; Schmitt, E. White House Claims Syria Is Preparing Poison Attack. New York Times 2017, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePathogens
ISSN (online)2076-0817

Other styles