How to format your references using the Frontiers in Forensic Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Forensic Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yellen, G. (2002). The voltage-gated potassium channels and their relatives. Nature 419, 35–42.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cowan, N., and Rouder, J. N. (2009). Comment on “Dynamic shifts of limited working memory resources in human vision.” Science 323, 877; author reply 877.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dutzler, R., Campbell, E. B., and MacKinnon, R. (2003). Gating the selectivity filter in ClC chloride channels. Science 300, 108–112.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Uchiyama, Y., Aharonian, F. A., Tanaka, T., Takahashi, T., and Maeda, Y. (2007). Extremely fast acceleration of cosmic rays in a supernova remnant. Nature 449, 576–578.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Neuber, A., and Nuttall, T. (2017). Diagnostic Techniques in Veterinary Dermatology. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Tonon, G. ed. (2016). Indicators of Quality of Life in Latin America. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Curran, J. M., and Rosen, D. E. (2015). “Reconceptualizing Trust: An Evolutionary Process Model,” in Proceedings of the 1998 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science., eds. J. B. Ford and E. D. Honeycutt Jr. (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 26–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Forensic Psychiatry.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2016). The Edge Of The Universe Is Closer Than Scientists Previously Thought. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993). Direct Student Loans: The Department of Education’s Implementation of Direct Lending. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Redcay, J. D. (2014). Kindergarten students’ reading performance and perceptions of Ludus Reading: A mixed-method study.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2009). 32 Voices Louder Than Limbaugh’s. New York Times, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yellen, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Yellen, 2002; Cowan and Rouder, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cowan and Rouder, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Uchiyama et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Forensic Psychiatry
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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