How to format your references using the Frontiers in Forensic Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Forensic Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taylor, M. (2011). Reform the PhD system or close it down. Nature 472, 261.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koo, H.-J., and Velev, O. D. (2013). Regenerable photovoltaic devices with a hydrogel-embedded microvascular network. Sci. Rep. 3, 2357.
A journal article with 3 authors
Johnson, C. L., Constable, C. G., and Tauxe, L. (2003). Geophysics. Mapping long-term changes in Earth’s magnetic field. Science 300, 2044–2045.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ke, Y., Lindsay, S., Chang, Y., Liu, Y., and Yan, H. (2008). Self-assembled water-soluble nucleic acid probe tiles for label-free RNA hybridization assays. Science 319, 180–183.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Papadimitriou, G. I., Tsimoulas, P. A., Obaidat, M. S., and Pomportsis, A. S. (2005). Multiwavelength Optical LANs. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Garcia-Alfaro, J., Navarro-Arribas, G., Cuppens-Boulahia, N., and Roudier, Y. eds. (2010). Data Privacy Management and Autonomous Spontaneous Security: 4th International Workshop, DPM 2009 and Second International Workshop, SETOP 2009, St. Malo, France, September 24-25, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Alvarez, M. G. J. (2016). “Subjectivities on the Edge,” in Identities and Subjectivities Cuadernos de la Fundación Santa María., eds. N. Worth and C. Dwyer (Singapore: Springer), 351–367.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Forensic Psychiatry.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016). Is It OK To Have A Beer After Exercise? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979). Release of Carson City Silver Dollar Bidders List. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morton, W. G. (2015). Isolating mycorrhizal fungi from Spiranthes vernalis for subsequent in vitro seed germination.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010). A Retail Internship. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Taylor, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Taylor, 2011; Koo and Velev, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Koo and Velev, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Ke et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Forensic Psychiatry
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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