How to format your references using the Frontiers in Forensic Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Forensic Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Byatt, A. S. (2005). Fiction informed by science. Nature 434, 294–297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Walck, J., and Dixon, K. (2009). Time to future-proof plants in storage. Nature 462, 721.
A journal article with 3 authors
Okuda, S., Freinkman, E., and Kahne, D. (2012). Cytoplasmic ATP hydrolysis powers transport of lipopolysaccharide across the periplasm in E. coli. Science 338, 1214–1217.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nagarkar, S. S., Saha, T., Desai, A. V., Talukdar, P., and Ghosh, S. K. (2014). Metal-organic framework based highly selective fluorescence turn-on probe for hydrogen sulphide. Sci. Rep. 4, 7053.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoy, J. (2015). Forensic Radio Survey Techniques for Cell Site Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gerndt, M., and Kranzlmüller, D. eds. (2006). High Performance Computing and Communications: Second International Conference, HPCC 2006, Munich, Germany, September 13-15, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sánchez, G., and Blanco, G. (2016). “Na, K-ATPase α4: An Isoform Dedicated to Sperm Function,” in Regulation of Membrane Na+-K+ ATPase, eds. S. Chakraborti and N. S. Dhalla (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 77–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Forensic Psychiatry.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). FactCheck: Does The New Climate Deal Let China Do Nothing For 16 Years? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995). School Finance: Trends in U.S. Education Spending. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bui, L. (2017). Mind Over Matter Telepsychiatry.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LaFRANIERE, S., Porat, D., and Armendariz, A. (2016). Unending but Unheard, the Echo of Gun Violence. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Byatt, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Byatt, 2005; Walck and Dixon, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Walck and Dixon, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Nagarkar et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Forensic Psychiatry
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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