How to format your references using the Frontiers in Forensic Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Forensic Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Kroon, H. (2007). Ecology. How do roots interact? Science 318, 1562–1563.
A journal article with 2 authors
Menand, T., and Tait, S. R. (2001). A phenomenological model for precursor volcanic eruptions. Nature 411, 678–680.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoshida, A., Yoneda-Kato, N., and Kato, J.-Y. (2013). CSN5 specifically interacts with CDK2 and controls senescence in a cytoplasmic cyclin E-mediated manner. Sci. Rep. 3, 1054.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xie, Z.-K., Huang, Q.-P., Huang, J., and Xie, Z.-F. (2014). Association between the IL1B, IL1RN polymorphisms and COPD risk: a meta-analysis. Sci. Rep. 4, 6202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Héno, R., and Chandelier, L. (2014). 3D Modeling of Buildings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Warwick, D. (2011). Handbook of Thromboprophylaxis. Second Edition. , eds. D. Gozzard and D. Perry Tarporley: Springer Healthcare Ltd.
A chapter in an edited book
Tao, X., Cui, Q., Xu, X., and Zhang, P. (2012). “Power Allocation of Group Cell System,” in Group Cell Architecture for Cooperative Communications SpringerBriefs in Computer Science., eds. Q. Cui, X. Xu, and P. Zhang (New York, NY: Springer), 47–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Forensic Psychiatry.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Winds At Core of Milky Way Clocked At 2 Million MPH. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992). Contract Pricing: A Low Percentage of Contractors Are Responsible for Most Reported Defective Pricing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Freedman, R. (2014). Assessing the functional recovery and connectivity potential of restored estuaries in southern California using juvenile predator fish movements.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2008). Plane Crash in Central Asia Kills 68. New York Times, A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Kroon, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Menand and Tait, 2001; de Kroon, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Menand and Tait, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Xie et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Forensic Psychiatry
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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