How to format your references using the Frontiers in Forensic Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Forensic Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walters, H. R. J. (2010). Physics. Antimatter atomic physics. Science 330, 762–763.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mello, C. C., and Conte, D., Jr (2004). Revealing the world of RNA interference. Nature 431, 338–342.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rossa, F. D., Dercole, F., and Piccardi, C. (2013). Profiling core-periphery network structure by random walkers. Sci. Rep. 3, 1467.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lakes, R. S., Lee, T., Bersie, A., and Wang, Y. C. (2001). Extreme damping in composite materials with negative-stiffness inclusions. Nature 410, 565–567.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Banks, R. E., Sharp, J. M., Doss, S. D., and Vanderford, D. A. (2016). Exotic Small Mammal Care and Husbandry. Ames, Iowa, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wong, K. W., Mendis, B. S. U., and Bouzerdoum, A. eds. (2010). Neural Information Processing. Theory and Algorithms: 17th International Conference, ICONIP 2010, Sydney, Australia, November 22-25, 2010, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Matsuura, T. (2014). “Structure of Student Interest in Science and Scientific Literacy: Using the Latent Class Analysis,” in International Conference on Science Education 2012 Proceedings: Science Education: Policies and Social Responsibilities, eds. B. Zhang, G. W. Fulmer, X. Liu, W. Hu, S. Peng, and B. Wei (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 57–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Forensic Psychiatry.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Insects Are the Great Survivors in Evolution: New Study. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997). Federal Communications Commission: Use of the 28 GHz and 31 GHz Bands for Local Multipoint Distribution Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fisher, E. (2012). Suffering God.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. (2016). Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times, MM26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Walters, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Mello and Conte, 2004; Walters, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mello and Conte, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Lakes et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Forensic Psychiatry
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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