How to format your references using the Pastoralism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pastoralism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler, Andrew. 2011. Archaeology. America’s lost city. Science (New York, N.Y.) 334: 1618–1623.
A journal article with 2 authors
Flames, Nuria, and Oliver Hobert. 2009. Gene regulatory logic of dopamine neuron differentiation. Nature 458: 885–889.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rhew, R. C., B. R. Miller, and R. F. Weiss. 2000. Natural methyl bromide and methyl chloride emissions from coastal salt marshes. Nature 403: 292–295.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Pfeifer, B. A., S. J. Admiraal, H. Gramajo, D. E. Cane, and C. Khosla. 2001. Biosynthesis of complex polyketides in a metabolically engineered strain of E. coli. Science (New York, N.Y.) 291: 1790–1792.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hulin, Wu, and Zhang Jin-Ting. 2006. Nonparametric Regression Methods for Longitudinal Data Analysis: Mixed-Effects Modeling Approaches. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Datta, Anupam, ed. 2009. Advances in Computer Science - ASIAN 2009. Information Security and Privacy: 13th Asian Computing Science Conference, Seoul, Korea, December 14-16, 2009. Proceedings. Vol. 5913. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Grinin, Leonid, and Andrey Korotayev. 2015. The Great Convergence and Globalization: How Former Colonies Became the World Economic Locomotives. In Great Divergence and Great Convergence: A Global Perspective, ed. Andrey Korotayev, 115–158. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pastoralism.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2017. This Creepy Mask Is The Oldest Copper Object Crafted In South America. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 7.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1970. Selected Contracting and Consulting Activities of the Office of Education. B-164031(1). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Atchison, Drew. 2017. An Examination of Educational Equity: The Impact of Accountability and Finance Reform Policies. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John, and Sapna Maheshwari. 2017. Eyes Drift. Marketers Stick to TV. New York Times, May 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lawler 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Flames and Hobert 2009; Lawler 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Flames and Hobert 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Pfeifer et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePastoralism
ISSN (online)2041-7136

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