How to format your references using the Pastoralism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pastoralism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kleppner, Daniel. 2008. Physics. A milestone in time keeping. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319: 1768–1769.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rammig, Anja, and Miguel D. Mahecha. 2015. Ecology: Ecosystem responses to climate extremes. Nature 527: 315–316.
A journal article with 3 authors
Charlesworth, Jonathan D., Timothy L. Warren, and Michael S. Brainard. 2012. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit. Nature 486: 251–255.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lei, Y., F. Mehmood, S. Lee, J. Greeley, B. Lee, S. Seifert, R. E. Winans, et al. 2010. Increased silver activity for direct propylene epoxidation via subnanometer size effects. Science (New York, N.Y.) 328: 224–228.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tewari, Ashish. 2011. Advanced Control of Aircraft, Spacecraft and Rockets. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Riviello, Maria Teresa. 2016. On the Perception of Dynamic Emotional Expressions: A Cross-cultural Comparison. Edited by Anna Esposito. Vol. 6. SpringerBriefs in Cognitive Computation. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Nagy, George. 2005. Interactive, Mobile, Distributed Pattern Recognition. In Image Analysis and Processing – ICIAP 2005: 13th International Conference, Cagliari, Italy, September 6-8, 2005. Proceedings, ed. Fabio Roli and Sergio Vitulano, 37–49. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pastoralism.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. An Insight Into The Domestication Of Barnyard Chickens. IFLScience. IFLScience. April 22.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Federal Research: Policies Guiding the Dissemination of Scientific Research from Selected Agencies Should Be Clarified and Better Communicated. GAO-07-653. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Park, Jong Kook. 2012. Target Identification, Therapeutic Application and Maturation Mechanism of microRNAs. Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John. 2017. How a Network Missed Out On the Weinstein Exposé. New York Times, October 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kleppner 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Kleppner 2008; Rammig and Mahecha 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rammig and Mahecha 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Lei et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titlePastoralism
ISSN (online)2041-7136

Other styles