How to format your references using the Pastoralism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pastoralism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Montgomery, S. L. 2001. Gained in the translation. Nature 409: 667.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lo, Jennifer A., and David E. Fisher. 2014. The melanoma revolution: from UV carcinogenesis to a new era in therapeutics. Science (New York, N.Y.) 346: 945–949.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bieber, Frederick R., Charles H. Brenner, and David Lazer. 2006. Human genetics. Finding criminals through DNA of their relatives. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312: 1315–1316.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Choi, D. H., Q. Wang, Y. Azuma, Y. Majima, J. H. Warner, Y. Miyata, H. Shinohara, and R. Kitaura. 2013. Fabrication and characterization of fully flattened carbon nanotubes: a new graphene nanoribbon analogue. Scientific reports 3: 1617.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Feyel, Philippe. 2013. Loop-shaping Robust Control. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Karcioglu, Zeynel A., ed. 2015. Orbital Tumors: Diagnosis and Treatment. 2nd ed. 2015. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kounine, Laura. 2016. Satanic Fury: Depictions of the Devil’s Rage in Nicolas Remy’s Daemonolatria. In Emotions in the History of Witchcraft, ed. Laura Kounine and Michael Ostling, 57–76. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pastoralism.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. Bicycle Bottle System Condenses Humidity From Air Into Drinkable Water. IFLScience. IFLScience. November 18.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Federal Judicial Space Follow-up. GGD-94-135R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vaughn, Emma L. 2013. Find me on Facebook: A new typology for categorizing online personalities. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Silver-Greenberg, Jessica, Ben Protess, and Michael Corkery. 2017. Deal With Saudis Underlines Benefits of Backing President. New York Times, August 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Montgomery 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Montgomery 2001; Lo and Fisher 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lo and Fisher 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Choi et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePastoralism
ISSN (online)2041-7136

Other styles