How to format your references using the Pastoralism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pastoralism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bunk, Steve. 2002. Tearing down the barriers. Nature 416: 4–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reimann, Julie D. R., and Peter K. Jackson. 2002. Emi1 is required for cytostatic factor arrest in vertebrate eggs. Nature 416: 850–854.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ribeiro, Bruno, Nicola Perra, and Andrea Baronchelli. 2013. Quantifying the effect of temporal resolution on time-varying networks. Scientific reports 3: 3006.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mullighan, Charles G., Jinghui Zhang, Lawryn H. Kasper, Stephanie Lerach, Debbie Payne-Turner, Letha A. Phillips, Sue L. Heatley, et al. 2011. CREBBP mutations in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Nature 471: 235–239.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sheriff, Ray E., and Y. Fun Hu. 2001. Mobile Satellite Communication Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Benson, Michael, John Fixsen, Malcolm Macnicol, and Klausdieter Parsch, ed. 2009. Children’s Orthopaedics and Fractures. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Arnold, Martin. 2009. Numerical methods for simulation in applied dynamics. In Simulation Techniques for Applied Dynamics, ed. Martin Arnold and Werner Schiehlen, 191–246. CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences. Vienna: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pastoralism.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. The Ability To Regenerate Lost Limbs May Have Only Evolved Once. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 30.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Executive Guide: Leading Practices in Capital Decision-Making (Supersedes AIMD-98-110). AIMD-99-32. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yang, Su Jin. 2014. Adapting Korean Cinderella Folklore as Fairy Tales for Children. Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, Mary J. O. 2010. A Game That Turned Nixon Into a Factoid. New York Times, June 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bunk 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bunk 2002; Reimann and Jackson 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reimann and Jackson 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Mullighan et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titlePastoralism
ISSN (online)2041-7136

Other styles