How to format your references using the Pastoralism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pastoralism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ramtani, Salah. 2013. Materials science. How to be both strong and thermally stable. Science (New York, N.Y.) 342: 320–321.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prakash, Manu, and Neil Gershenfeld. 2007. Microfluidic bubble logic. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315: 832–835.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dieterich, J., V. Cayol, and P. Okubo. 2000. The use of earthquake rate changes as a stress meter at Kilauea volcano. Nature 408: 457–460.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Luo, Jiajun, Xiaoming Wang, Shunran Li, Jing Liu, Yueming Guo, Guangda Niu, Li Yao, et al. 2018. Efficient and stable emission of warm-white light from lead-free halide double perovskites. Nature 563: 541–545.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gaisford, Simon, and Mark Saunders. 2012. Essentials of Pharmaceutical Preformulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bishop, Matt, Natalia Miloslavskaya, and Marianthi Theocharidou, ed. 2015. Information Security Education Across the Curriculum: 9th IFIP WG 11.8 World Conference, WISE 9, Hamburg, Germany, May 26-28, 2015, Proceedings. Vol. 453. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Chaudhry, Akram M. 2009. Parsimonious Modeling and Forecasting of Time Series drifted by Autoregressive Noise. In Rapid Modelling for Increasing Competitiveness: Tools and Mindset, ed. Gerald Reiner, 45–51. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pastoralism.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. Ancient Lost City Discovered Underground. IFLScience. IFLScience. December 13.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. The Times and Space: An Interview With Michael Collins. 137888. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Soto, Marisela. 2009. Barriers among Hispanic adults on dialysis that affect medication compliance. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2009. We’re All Finally Learning The True Price Of Football. New York Times, October 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ramtani 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Prakash and Gershenfeld 2007; Ramtani 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Prakash and Gershenfeld 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Luo et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titlePastoralism
ISSN (online)2041-7136

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