How to format your references using the Pastoralism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pastoralism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Triendl, Robert. 2002. Interaction required. Nature 415: 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fields, R. Douglas, and Beth Stevens-Graham. 2002. New insights into neuron-glia communication. Science (New York, N.Y.) 298: 556–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Randau, Lennart, Imke Schröder, and Dieter Söll. 2008. Life without RNase P. Nature 453: 120–123.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kusurkar, Tejas S., Ishita Tandon, Niroj Kumar Sethy, Kalpana Bhargava, Sabyasachi Sarkar, Sushil Kumar Singh, and Mainak Das. 2013. Fluorescent silk cocoon creating fluorescent diatom using a “Water glass-fluorophore ferry.” Scientific reports 3: 3290.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dauphiné, André. 2012. Fractal Geography. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Avison, William R., Carol S. Aneshensel, Scott Schieman, and Blair Wheaton, ed. 2010. Advances in the Conceptualization of the Stress Process: Essays in Honor of Leonard I. Pearlin. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Erozan, Yener S., and Armanda Tatsas. 2015. Kidney. In Cytopathology of Liver, Biliary Tract, Kidney and Adrenal Gland, ed. Armanda Tatsas, 115–161. Essentials in Cytopathology. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pastoralism.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. Pen That Lets You Draw Any Color In The World. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 10.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Financial Management: Briefing on the Federal Aviation Administration Property, Plant, and Equipment Accountability Review. AIMD-99-208R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Webber, Nathaniel T. 2012. Peptide ion conformation studies and the 157 nm photofragmentation of arginine containing dipeptides. Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McWHORTER, John. 2017. How to Listen to Donald Trump Every Day for Years. New York Times, January 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Triendl 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Fields and Stevens-Graham 2002; Triendl 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fields and Stevens-Graham 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Kusurkar et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePastoralism
ISSN (online)2041-7136

Other styles