How to format your references using the Parkinsonism and Related Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parkinsonism and Related Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.L. Dangl, Plant science. Nibbling at the plant cell nucleus, Science. 315 (2007) 1088–1089.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.R. Patel, K. Shen, RSY-1 is a local inhibitor of presynaptic assembly in C. elegans, Science. 323 (2009) 1500–1503.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. Spurný, J. Oberst, D. Heinlein, Photographic observations of Neuschwanstein, a second meteorite from the orbit of the Príbram chondrite, Nature. 423 (2003) 151–153.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P.C. de Ruiter, V. Wolters, J.C. Moore, K.O. Winemiller, Ecology. Food web ecology: playing Jenga and beyond, Science. 309 (2005) 68–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. Gustafsson, Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2001.
An edited book
S. Rahman, T. Street, H. Tahiri, eds., The Unity of Science in the Arabic Tradition: Science, Logic, Epistemology and their Interactions, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Clemente, M. Lasagna, G.A. Dino, D.A. De Luca, Comparison of Different Methods for Detecting Irrigation Canals Leakage, in: G. Lollino, M. Arattano, M. Rinaldi, O. Giustolisi, J.-C. Marechal, G.E. Grant (Eds.), Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Volume 3: River Basins, Reservoir Sedimentation and Water Resources, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 23–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parkinsonism and Related Disorders.

Blog post
E. Andrew, The Evolution Of The Y Chromosome, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Resources, Community, and Economic Development Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. Rogers, What Qualities Make an Effective Teacher Labor Union Leader?, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
W. Hu, New Bronx District Attorney Fixes Her Sights on Rikers Island Cases, New York Times. (2016) A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleParkinsonism and Related Disorders
AbbreviationParkinsonism Relat. Disord.
ISSN (print)1353-8020
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology
Clinical Neurology

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