How to format your references using the Pastoral Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pastoral Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carmichael, M. (2013). Drug safety: double jeopardy. Nature, 498(7455), S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huppert, H. E., & Woods, A. W. (2002). The role of volatiles in magma chamber dynamics. Nature, 420(6915), 493–495.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ma, J., Bai, L., & Wang, M. D. (2013). Transcription under torsion. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6140), 1580–1583.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Liu, L., Hausladen, A., Zeng, M., Que, L., Heitman, J., & Stamler, J. S. (2001). A metabolic enzyme for S-nitrosothiol conserved from bacteria to humans. Nature, 410(6827), 490–494.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Milne, D. (2012). The Psychology of Retirement. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zia, A. I. (2016). Electrochemical Sensing: Carcinogens in Beverages. (S. C. Mukhopadhyay, Ed.) (Vol. 20). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Howe, A. S. (2013). Knobology. In J. M. Daniels & W. W. Dexter (Eds.), Basics of Musculoskeletal Ultrasound (pp. 11–13). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pastoral Psychology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, September 29). Hold It Right There: How (And Why) To Stop Light In Its Tracks. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Federal Student Loans: Key Weaknesses Limit Education’s Management of Contractors (No. GAO-16-196T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cao, L. (2017). Mathematical Modeling of Long-Term Productivity of Hydraulic- and HEG- Fractured Wells in Ultra-Low Permeability Reservoirs (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski, S. F., & Flegenheimer, M. (2014, February 27). Christie Allies Joked of Disrupting Traffic at a Rabbi’s House. New York Times, p. A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carmichael 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Carmichael 2013; Huppert and Woods 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huppert and Woods 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePastoral Psychology
AbbreviationPastoral Psychol.
ISSN (print)0031-2789
ISSN (online)1573-6679
ScopeReligious studies
Applied Psychology
Social Psychology
Sociology and Political Science

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