How to format your references using the Frontiers in Mucosal Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Mucosal Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alroy, J. (2010). The shifting balance of diversity among major marine animal groups. Science 329, 1191–1194.
A journal article with 2 authors
Errami, M., and Garner, H. (2008). A tale of two citations. Nature 451, 397–399.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bazin, E., Glémin, S., and Galtier, N. (2006). Population size does not influence mitochondrial genetic diversity in animals. Science 312, 570–572.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu, Y., Chen, C.-C., Hong, Z., Gao, J., Yang, Y. M., Zhou, H., et al. (2013). Solution-processed small-molecule solar cells: breaking the 10% power conversion efficiency. Sci. Rep. 3, 3356.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowlinson, M. (2016). A Practical Guide to the NEC3 Engineering and Construction Contract. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Damm, W., and Hermanns, H. eds. (2007). Computer Aided Verification: 19th International Conference, CAV 2007, Berlin, Germany, July 3-7, 2007. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Holdaway, S. (2015). “Surface Survey: Method and Strategies,” in Field Archaeology from Around the World: Ideas and Approaches SpringerBriefs in Archaeology., eds. M. Carver, B. Gaydarska, and S. Montón-Subías (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 27–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Mucosal Immunity.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016). From Flapper To Flipper: How The Penguin Lost Its Flight. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009). Access to Arts Education: Inclusion of Additional Questions in Education’s Planned Research Would Help Explain Why Instruction Time Has Decreased for Some Students. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Deshpande, A. S. (2009). Efficient idempotent methods for optimal control.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2016). Back Home, Crashing on a Couch and Dreaming of Rap Greatness. New York Times, C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alroy, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Errami and Garner, 2008; Alroy, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Errami and Garner, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Mucosal Immunity
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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