How to format your references using the Frontiers in Mucosal Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Mucosal Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Storz, J. F. (2010). Evolution. Genes for high altitudes. Science 329, 40–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Colautti, R. I., and Barrett, S. C. H. (2013). Rapid adaptation to climate facilitates range expansion of an invasive plant. Science 342, 364–366.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pascalis, O., de Haan, M., and Nelson, C. A. (2002). Is face processing species-specific during the first year of life? Science 296, 1321–1323.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lefèvre, M., Proietti, E., Jaouen, F., and Dodelet, J.-P. (2009). Iron-based catalysts with improved oxygen reduction activity in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Science 324, 71–74.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hossler, F. E. (2014). Ultrastructure Atlas of Human Tissues. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Südholt, M., and Consel, C. eds. (2007). Object-Oriented Technology. ECOOP 2006 Workshop Reader: ECOOP 2006 Workshops, Nantes, France, July 3-7, 2006, Final Reports. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Passeron, T. (2016). “Acquired hypomelanosis,” in Atlas of Pigmentary Disorders, eds. T. Passeron and J.-P. Ortonne (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 129–183.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Mucosal Immunity.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Morgan Freeman’s Voice on Helium. IFLScience. Available at:’s-voice-helium/ [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005). Transportation Services: Better Dissemination and Oversight of DOT’s Guidance Could Lead to Improved Access for Limited English-Proficient Populations (Vietnamese Version). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horta, G. (2013). The potential of the Eurozone crisis to mobilize extreme right support in Spain, Portugal, and Italy.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2013). Top Sprinters Test Positive, Jolting Track World. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Storz, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Storz, 2010; Colautti and Barrett, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Colautti and Barrett, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Lefèvre et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Mucosal Immunity
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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