How to format your references using the Frontiers in Mucosal Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Mucosal Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holmes, N. (2008). Immunology. A splicing switch for T cells. Science 321, 646–647.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brodribb, T. J., and McAdam, S. A. M. (2011). Passive origins of stomatal control in vascular plants. Science 331, 582–585.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berner, R. A., Vandenbrooks, J. M., and Ward, P. D. (2007). Evolution. Oxygen and evolution. Science 316, 557–558.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gunnarsen, K. S., Kristinsson, S. G., Justesen, S., Frigstad, T., Buus, S., Bogen, B., et al. (2013). Chaperone-assisted thermostability engineering of a soluble T cell receptor using phage display. Sci. Rep. 3, 1162.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hornberger, G., and Wiberg, P. (2005). Numerical Methods in the Hydrological Sciences. Washington D. C.: American Geophysical Union.
An edited book
Bagdoev, A. G. (2016). Wave Dynamics of Generalized Continua. 1st ed. 2016. , eds. V. I. Erofeyev and A. V. Shekoyan Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Puri, R., and Nicholls, S. J. (2014). “Monitoring the Progression and Regression of Coronary Atherosclerosis with Intravascular Ultrasound,” in Imaging Coronary Atherosclerosis Contemporary Cardiology., eds. S. J. Nicholls and T. Crowe (New York, NY: Springer), 67–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Mucosal Immunity.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). The Twilight Comet: Comet PanSTARRS. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012). Financial Literacy: Overlap of Programs Suggests There May Be Opportunities for Consolidation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
White, A. E. (2015). Female ministers in pastoral leadership: A phenomenological study.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Winerip, M., and Schwirtz, M. (2015). Even as Many Eyes Watch, Brutality at Rikers Persists. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holmes, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Brodribb and McAdam, 2011; Holmes, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brodribb and McAdam, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Gunnarsen et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Mucosal Immunity
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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