How to format your references using the Frontiers in Mucosal Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Mucosal Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walsh, C. T. (2004). Polyketide and nonribosomal peptide antibiotics: modularity and versatility. Science 303, 1805–1810.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stevens, B., and Bony, S. (2013). Climate change. What are climate models missing? Science 340, 1053–1054.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schoener, T. W., Losos, J. B., and Spiller, D. A. (2005). Island biogeography of populations: an introduced species transforms survival patterns. Science 310, 1807–1809.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sharma, S., Kumar, S. K., Buldyrev, S. V., Debenedetti, P. G., Rossky, P. J., and Stanley, H. E. (2013). A coarse-grained protein model in a water-like solvent. Sci. Rep. 3, 1841.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Delgado, R. L.-C., and Araki, M. (2006). Spoken, Multilingual and Multimodal Dialogue Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hersh, M. A., and Johnson, M. A. eds. (2008). Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired and Blind People. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Markl, M. (2015). “Higher Braces Via Formal (Non)Commutative Geometry,” in Geometric Methods in Physics: XXXIII Workshop, Białowieża, Poland, June 29 – July 5, 2014 Trends in Mathematics., eds. P. Kielanowski, P. Bieliavsky, A. Odzijewicz, M. Schlichenmaier, and T. Voronov (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 67–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Mucosal Immunity.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). We Are Lucky To Live In A Universe Made For Us. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990). FTS 2000: An Overview of the Federal Government’s New Telecommunications System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Large, K. G. (2008). A study of Statewide Transfer and Articulation Reporting System (STARS) approved courses completed at an Alabama community college.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2003). A Block of Fabled Theaters May Get an Extended Run. New York Times, 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Walsh, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Walsh, 2004; Stevens and Bony, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stevens and Bony, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Sharma et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Mucosal Immunity
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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