How to format your references using the Frontiers in Mucosal Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Mucosal Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lang, T. (2011). Advancing global health research through digital technology and sharing data. Science 331, 714–717.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson, P. A., and Norris, R. D. (2001). Warm tropical ocean surface and global anoxia during the mid-Cretaceous period. Nature 412, 425–429.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mo, Y., Turner, K. T., and Szlufarska, I. (2009). Friction laws at the nanoscale. Nature 457, 1116–1119.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bauch, T., Lindström, T., Tafuri, F., Rotoli, G., Delsing, P., Claeson, T., et al. (2006). Quantum dynamics of a d-wave Josephson junction. Science 311, 57–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cohen, C. (2013). Business Intelligence. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Konstan, J. A., Conejo, R., Marzo, J. L., and Oliver, N. eds. (2011). User Modeling, Adaption and Personalization: 19th International Conference, UMAP 2011, Girona, Spain, July 11-15, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gunn, C. (2015). “Online Assessment and Learner Motivation in the Twenty-First Century,” in Motivation, Leadership and Curriculum design: Engaging the Net Generation and 21st Century Learners, ed. C. Koh (Singapore: Springer), 53–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Mucosal Immunity.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015). Lions Roam Rwanda Again After a 15-Year Absence. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012). Traffic Congestion: Road Pricing Can Help Reduce Congestion, but Equity Concerns May Grow. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung, J. (2015). Quasi-one-dimensional modeling of an adiabatic-compression preheated Ludwieg tube.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017). With New Injury, the Mets’ Training Program Is Again Questioned. New York Times, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lang, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Wilson and Norris, 2001; Lang, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilson and Norris, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Bauch et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Mucosal Immunity
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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