How to format your references using the Frontiers in Mucosal Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Mucosal Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alward, W. L. M. (2003). Biomedicine. A new angle on ocular development. Science 299, 1527–1528.
A journal article with 2 authors
Margoliash, D., and Hale, M. E. (2008). Neuroscience. Vertebrate vocalizations. Science 321, 347–348.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sereno, M. I., Pitzalis, S., and Martinez, A. (2001). Mapping of contralateral space in retinotopic coordinates by a parietal cortical area in humans. Science 294, 1350–1354.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cordenonsi, M., Montagner, M., Adorno, M., Zacchigna, L., Martello, G., Mamidi, A., et al. (2007). Integration of TGF-beta and Ras/MAPK signaling through p53 phosphorylation. Science 315, 840–843.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kupka, H. J. (2010). Transitions in Molecular Systems. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Díaz Lantada, A. ed. (2016). Microsystems for Enhanced Control of Cell Behavior: Fundamentals, Design and Manufacturing Strategies, Applications and Challenges. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Dela Haije, T. C. J., Duits, R., and Tax, C. M. W. (2014). “Sharpening Fibers in Diffusion Weighted MRI via Erosion,” in Visualization and Processing of Tensors and Higher Order Descriptors for Multi-Valued Data Mathematics and Visualization., eds. C.-F. Westin, A. Vilanova, and B. Burgeth (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 97–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Mucosal Immunity.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016). Meet Savannasaurus, Australia’s Newest Titanosaur. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003). Airport Passenger Screening: Preliminary Observations on Progress Made and Challenges Remaining. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Culumber, J. J. (2017). Physician Practice Survival: The Role of Analytics in Shaping the Future.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2015). A Title Once Held by Ruth and Berra Now Belongs to . . . New York Times, B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alward, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Alward, 2003; Margoliash and Hale, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Margoliash and Hale, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Cordenonsi et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Mucosal Immunity
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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