How to format your references using the Particuology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Particuology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spiegel, F. W. (2012). Evolution. Contemplating the first Plantae. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6070), 809–810.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gehring, W. J., & Willoughby, A. R. (2002). The medial frontal cortex and the rapid processing of monetary gains and losses. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5563), 2279–2282.
A journal article with 3 authors
Korswagen, H. C., Herman, M. A., & Clevers, H. C. (2000). Distinct beta-catenins mediate adhesion and signalling functions in C. elegans. Nature, 406(6795), 527–532.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kramer, E. M., Lewandowski, M., Beri, S., Bernard, J., Borkowski, M., Borkowski, M. H., Burchfield, L. A., Mathisen, B., & Normanly, J. (2008). Auxin gradients are associated with polarity changes in trees. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5883), 1610.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lyshevski, S. E. (2005). Engineering and Scientific Computations Using MATLAB®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wheeler, D. S., Wong, H. R., & Shanley, T. P. (Eds.). (2014). Pediatric Critical Care Medicine: Volume 2: Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems (2nd ed. 2014). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Michalak, T., Engwerda, J., Plasmans, J., van Aarle, B., & Di Bartolomeo, G. (2008). Models of Endogenous Coalition Formation Between Fiscal and Monetary Authorities in the Presence of a Monetary Union. In R. Neck, C. Richter, & P. Mooslechner (Eds.), Quantitative Economic Policy: Essays in Honour of Andrew Hughes Hallett (pp. 103–136). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Particuology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2017, January 19). Ultra, Super, Clean Coal Power? We’ve Heard It Before. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Tax Systems Modernization: Actions Underway But Management and Technical Weaknesses Not Yet Corrected (T-AIMD-96-165). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Royalty, A. R. (2015). U.S. Military Advisors in Iraq: A Phenomenological Research Study on the Role of National Culture on Tactical Decision-making during Wartime [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Suleiman, S. R. (2016, October 18). Selected for Death. New York Times, BR20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spiegel, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Gehring & Willoughby, 2002; Spiegel, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gehring & Willoughby, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Korswagen et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kramer et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleParticuology
ISSN (print)1674-2001
ScopeGeneral Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles