How to format your references using the Parasitology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasitology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Beal, M. F. (2010). Parkinson’s disease: a model dilemma. Nature 466, S8-10.
A journal article with 2 authors
Inchausti, P. and Halley, J. (2001). Investigating long-term ecological variability using the Global Population Dynamics Database. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293, 655–657.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reichardt, B. W., Unger, F. and Vazirani, U. (2013). Classical command of quantum systems. Nature 496, 456–460.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Jiang, Y., Lee, A., Chen, J., Cadene, M., Chait, B. T. and MacKinnon, R. (2002). The open pore conformation of potassium channels. Nature 417, 523–526.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wempen, F. (2010). Microsoft® PowerPoint® 2010 Bible. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Graben, P. B., Zhou, C., Thiel, M. and Kurths, J. eds. (2008). Lectures in Supercomputational Neurosciences: Dynamics in Complex Brain Networks. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Chaimontree, S., Atkinson, K. and Coenen, F. (2010). Best Clustering Configuration Metrics: Towards Multiagent Based Clustering. In Advanced Data Mining and Applications: 6th International Conference, ADMA 2010, Chongqing, China, November 19-21, 2010, Proceedings, Part I (ed. Cao, L., Feng, Y., and Zhong, J.), pp. 48–59. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasitology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017). This Is The Coldest Place In The Universe – And Now We Know Why. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992). Practitioner Data Bank: Information on Small Medical Malpractice Payments, IMTEC-92-56. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luna, A. C. (2009). Analysis of the California Mental Health Services Act.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Smale, A. and Erlanger, S. (2017). Wary of Trump, Merkel Doubts U.S. Is Solid Ally. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Beal, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Inchausti and Halley, 2001; Beal, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Inchausti and Halley, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiang et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleParasitology
ISSN (print)0031-1820
ISSN (online)1469-8161
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Infectious Diseases

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