How to format your references using the Parasitology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasitology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Packer, C. (2010). Genetics. A bit of Texas in Florida. Science (New York, N.Y.) 329, 1606–1607.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boller, T. and He, S. Y. (2009). Innate immunity in plants: an arms race between pattern recognition receptors in plants and effectors in microbial pathogens. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324, 742–744.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rougier, G. W., Apesteguía, S. and Gaetano, L. C. (2011). Highly specialized mammalian skulls from the Late Cretaceous of South America. Nature 479, 98–102.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Chahrour, M., Jung, S. Y., Shaw, C., Zhou, X., Wong, S. T. C., Qin, J. and Zoghbi, H. Y. (2008). MeCP2, a key contributor to neurological disease, activates and represses transcription. Science (New York, N.Y.) 320, 1224–1229.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
May, V. and Kühn, O. (2007). Charge and Energy Transfer Dynamics in Molecular Systems. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Cai, W. (2010). Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications. ed. Shalaev, V. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, A. Y. and Martin, C. E. (2011). Smoothing Multinomial Naïve Bayes in the Presence of Imbalance. In Machine Learning and Data Mining in Pattern Recognition: 7th International Conference, MLDM 2011, New York, NY, USA, August 30 – September 3, 2011. Proceedings (ed. Perner, P.), pp. 46–59. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasitology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). We may one day be reading by the light of a houseplant. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Telecommunications: Overview of the Cramming Problem, T-RCED-00-28. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carrier, T. H. (2017). Using Grunig’s Situational Theory for Analysis of Frames in Human Trafficking Awareness Organizations’ YouTube Videos.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pinker, S. (2015). Can Students Have Too Much Tech? New York Times A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Packer, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Boller and He, 2009; Packer, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boller and He, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Chahrour et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleParasitology
ISSN (print)0031-1820
ISSN (online)1469-8161
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Infectious Diseases

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