How to format your references using the Parasitology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasitology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fridley, J. D. (2012). Extended leaf phenology and the autumn niche in deciduous forest invasions. Nature 485, 359–362.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sininger, Y. S. and Cone-Wesson, B. (2004). Asymmetric cochlear processing mimics hemispheric specialization. Science (New York, N.Y.) 305, 1581.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shen, P.-C., Lin, M.-S. and Lin, C.-F. (2014). Environmentally benign technology for efficient warm-white light emission. Scientific reports 4, 5307.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Kim, J., Dong, H., Seabaugh, J., Newell, S. W. and Eberl, D. D. (2004). Role of microbes in the smectite-to-illite reaction. Science (New York, N.Y.) 303, 830–832.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Becker, K. and Rautenstrauch, K. (2012). Ingenieurholzbau nach Eurocode 5: Konstruktion, Berechnung, Ausführung. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Zhu, Q., Gould, J., Li, Y. and Ma, C. eds. (2015). Rainwater Harvesting for Agriculture and Water Supply. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Jakhu, R. S. and Pelton, J. N. (2014). The Global Legal Guidelines Governing Satellite Deployment. In Small Satellites and Their Regulation (ed. Pelton, J. N.), pp. 43–48. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasitology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Mouse vs. Scorpion- Who Do You Think Wins? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001). Information Technology Management: Social Security Administration Practices Can Be Improved, GAO-01-961. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Friedman, D. E. (2017). Characterization of Organic Matter in Suspended Sediments Via Pyrolysis and Oxidation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Castle, S. and Kanter, J. (2016). Dispute Between Lawmakers Turns Ugly. New York Times A3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fridley, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Sininger and Cone-Wesson, 2004; Fridley, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sininger and Cone-Wesson, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleParasitology
ISSN (print)0031-1820
ISSN (online)1469-8161
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Infectious Diseases

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