How to format your references using the Parasitology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasitology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D. (2002). Satellite set to keep track of whales. Nature 415, 354.
A journal article with 2 authors
Norton, D. A. and Didham, R. K. (2007). Comment on “Why are there so many species of herbivorous insects in tropical rainforests?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315, 1666; author reply 1666.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hosseini, P., Wright, C. D. and Bhaskaran, H. (2014). An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films. Nature 511, 206–211.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Knauth, D. C., Andersson, B.-G., McCandliss, S. R. and Moos, H. W. (2004). The interstellar N2 abundance towards HD 124314 from far-ultraviolet observations. Nature 429, 636–638.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gilmore, R. and Lefranc, M. (2011). The Topology of Chaos. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Sintchenko, V. ed. (2010). Infectious Disease Informatics. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Kagan, V., Rossini, E. and Sapounas, D. (2013). Text Analytics. In Sentiment Analysis for PTSD Signals (ed. Rossini, E. and Sapounas, D.), pp. 21–32. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasitology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Testing Ancient Human Hearing Via Fossilized Ear Bones. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). Health Care: Home Care Experiences of Families With Chronically Ill Children, HRD-89-73. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kingston, S. E. (2012). Genome-wide analysis of divergence and introgression in towhee hybrid zones.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001). Coffee, Two Eggs Over Easy And a Sketch of a Landmark. New York Times 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski, 2002; Norton and Didham, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Norton and Didham, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Knauth et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleParasitology
ISSN (print)0031-1820
ISSN (online)1469-8161
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Infectious Diseases

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