How to format your references using the Parasitology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasitology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, M. (2011). Genomics: Genomes in three dimensions. Nature 470, 289–294.
A journal article with 2 authors
Crespi, B. and Springer, S. (2003). Ecology. Social slime molds meet their match. Science (New York, N.Y.) 299, 56–57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dai, X., Chen, A. and Bai, Z. (2014). Integrative investigation on breast cancer in ER, PR and HER2-defined subgroups using mRNA and miRNA expression profiling. Scientific reports 4, 6566.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Yin, L., Zhu, M., Knoll, A. H., Yuan, X., Zhang, J. and Hu, J. (2007). Doushantuo embryos preserved inside diapause egg cysts. Nature 446, 661–663.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rumelhard, C., Algani, C. and Billabert, A.-L. (2013). Microwave Photonic Links. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
D’Odorico, P. and Porporato, A. eds. (2006). Dryland Ecohydrology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Tian, G. (2012). Existence of Einstein Metrics on Fano Manifolds. In Metric and Differential Geometry: The Jeff Cheeger Anniversary Volume (ed. Dai, X. and Rong, X.), pp. 119–159. Springer, Basel.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasitology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Scientists Discover Simple Technique That Cuts Calories In Rice By 60%. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991). Aerospace Plane Technology: Research and Development Efforts in Europe, NSIAD-91-194. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aloe-Chase, S. T. (2008). Family member perspectives on collaboration: An exploratory study.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sokolove, M. (2017). Following the Money. New York Times AR22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Crespi and Springer, 2003; Baker, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Crespi and Springer, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Yin et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleParasitology
ISSN (print)0031-1820
ISSN (online)1469-8161
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Infectious Diseases

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