How to format your references using the Oecologia Australis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oecologia Australis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nachtsheim, B. J. 2014. Chemistry. Creating antioxidants by oxidation catalysis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6194), 270–271.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dekkers, M. P. J., & Barde, Y.-A. 2013. Developmental biology. Programmed cell death in neuronal development. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6128), 39–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahrestani, F. S., Hebblewhite, M., & Post, E. 2013. The importance of observation versus process error in analyses of global ungulate populations. Scientific Reports, 3, 3125.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ilayaraja, R., Rajkumar, R., Rajesh, D., Muralidharan, A. R., Padmanabhan, P., & Archunan, G. 2014. Evaluating the binding efficiency of pheromone binding protein with its natural ligand using molecular docking and fluorescence analysis. Scientific Reports, 4, 5201.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rogers, E. F., Jr. 2013. Aquinas and the Supreme Court. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Huber, S. (Ed.). 2010. School Leadership - International Perspectives. Vol. 10 Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands: p. XX, 328 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Thompson, H. J., Jiang, W., & Zhu, Z. 2011. Energetics and Cancer: Exploring a Road Less Traveled. In: A. McTiernan (Ed.), Physical Activity, Dietary Calorie Restriction, and Cancer. pp. 55–67. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oecologia Australis.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014, December 10. Mountain Hens Lay Glossy, Color-Changing Eggs. (Retrieved on October 30th, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Federal Student Loans: Education Could Do More to Help Ensure Borrowers Are Aware of Repayment and Forgiveness Options. No. GAO-15-663; p. ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
White, B. D. 2015. Implementation of Positive Behavior Intervention and Support at the High School Level. Doctoral dissertation St. Charles, MO, Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J. 2016, October 7. A Hurricane That’s Hard to Predict, Even for a Veteran Storm Watcher. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nachtsheim 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Dekkers & Barde 2013, Nachtsheim 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dekkers & Barde 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Ilayaraja et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleOecologia Australis
ISSN (print)2177-6199

Other styles