How to format your references using the Oecologia Australis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oecologia Australis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q. 2002. Maths adds up for Berlin centre. Nature, 420(6914), 348.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rathmell, J. C., & Newgard, C. B. 2009. Biochemistry. A glucose-to-gene link. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5930), 1021–1022.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hansel, D. E., Eipper, B. A., & Ronnett, G. V. 2001. Neuropeptide Y functions as a neuroproliferative factor. Nature, 410(6831), 940–944.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nishimura, M. T., Stein, M., Hou, B.-H., Vogel, J. P., Edwards, H., & Somerville, S. C. 2003. Loss of a callose synthase results in salicylic acid-dependent disease resistance. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5635), 969–972.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MacIsaac, B., & Langton, R. 2011. Gas Turbine Propulsion Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Castillo, P. 2005. Modelling and Control of Mini-Flying Machines. R. Lozano & A. E. Dzul (Eds.), London: Springer: p. XVI, 252 p. 126 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Xu, J., Wang, S., & Ma, J. 2015. Experiments and Results. In: S. Wang & J. Ma (Eds.), Protein Homology Detection Through Alignment of Markov Random Fields: Using MRFalign. pp. 37–48. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oecologia Australis.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2016, November 29. The Weirdest Sex Laws From Around The World. (Retrieved on October 30th, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1973. Challenges and Problems in the Evaluation of Government Programs. No. 094527; p. ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williamson, J. W. 2009. Measurements and analysis of extinction in vitiated flame sheets. Doctoral dissertation College Park, MD, University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pipher, M. 2013, April 18. Lighting a Spark On the High Plains. New York Times, p. A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Schiermeier 2002, Rathmell & Newgard 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rathmell & Newgard 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Nishimura et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleOecologia Australis
ISSN (print)2177-6199

Other styles