How to format your references using the Oecologia Australis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oecologia Australis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wible, B. 2012. Rio+20. Science for sustainable development. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6087), 1396.
A journal article with 2 authors
Doak, D. F., & Morris, W. F. 2010. Demographic compensation and tipping points in climate-induced range shifts. Nature, 467(7318), 959–962.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meyron-Holtz, E. G., Ghosh, M. C., & Rouault, T. A. 2004. Mammalian tissue oxygen levels modulate iron-regulatory protein activities in vivo. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5704), 2087–2090.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Recker, M., Nee, S., Bull, P. C., Kinyanjui, S., Marsh, K., Newbold, C., & Gupta, S. 2004. Transient cross-reactive immune responses can orchestrate antigenic variation in malaria. Nature, 429(6991), 555–558.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Katsilambros, N., Kanaka-Gantenbein, C., Liatis, S., Makrilakis, K., & Tentolouris, N. 2011. Diabetic Emergencies. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Wimmer, M. A., Scholl, J., & Grönlund, Å. (Eds.). 2007. Electronic Government: 6th International Conference, EGOV 2007, Regensburg, Germany, September 3-7, 2007. Proceedings. Vol. 4656 Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer: p. XIV, 450 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Slee, P. T., & Skrzypiec, G. 2016. School and Classroom Climate and Well-being. In: G. Skrzypiec (Ed.), Well-Being, Positive Peer Relations and Bullying in School Settings. pp. 95–107. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oecologia Australis.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2016, September 20. The Sun Will Destroy Earth A Lot Sooner Than You Might Think. (Retrieved on October 30th, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. ADP Systems: FDA Can Reduce Development Risks for Its Import Information System. No. IMTEC-88-42; p. ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez, C. A. 2013. Intervention workshops for members of multidisciplinary teams on hoarding: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation Long Beach, CA, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S. M. 2014, February 9. A Bowl of Warmth and Comfort. New York Times, p. LI9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wible 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Doak & Morris 2010, Wible 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Doak & Morris 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Recker et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleOecologia Australis
ISSN (print)2177-6199

Other styles