How to format your references using the Oecologia Australis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oecologia Australis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schrag, D. P. 2009. Storage of carbon dioxide in offshore sediments. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5948), 1658–1659.
A journal article with 2 authors
Palczewski, K., & Kiser, P. D. 2013. Biochemistry. As good as chocolate. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6132), 562–563.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stajic, J., Coontz, R., & Osborne, I. 2011. Superconductivity. Happy 100th, superconductivity! Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6026), 189.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gagnon, E., Ranitovic, P., Tong, X.-M., Cocke, C. L., Murnane, M. M., Kapteyn, H. C., & Sandhu, A. S. 2007. Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5843), 1374–1378.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khatib, T., & Elmenreich, W. 2016. Modeling of Photovoltaic Systems Using MATLAB ®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nguyen, N. T., Le, M. T., & Świątek, J. (Eds.). 2010. Intelligent Information and Database Systems: Second International Conference, ACIIDS, Hue City, Vietnam, March 24-26, 2010. Proceedings, Part II. Vol. 5991 Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer: p. XXIII, 483 p. 192 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Means, M., & Khalbuss, W. E. 2013. Squamous Lesions in the Pap Test. In: W. E. Khalbuss & M. Means (Eds.), Gynecological and Breast Cytopathology Board Review and Self-Assessment. pp. 177–262. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oecologia Australis.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014, October 1. First Ebola Case Diagnosed in the U.S. Confirmed. (Retrieved on October 30th, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1974. Expenditures of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for Public Relations Activities. No. B-161939; p. ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Katsky, C. S. 2015. Open Secrets: Congressional Oversight of the CIA in the Early Cold War. Doctoral dissertation Washington, DC, George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Clarke, J. 2016, July 23. Resilient Golf Turf Faces Test at Olympics. New York Times, p. SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schrag 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Schrag 2009, Palczewski & Kiser 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Palczewski & Kiser 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Gagnon et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleOecologia Australis
ISSN (print)2177-6199

Other styles