How to format your references using the Parasite citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasite. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seehausen O. 2015. Evolution: Beauty varies with the light. Nature, 521, 34–35.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hudson ZM, Manners I. 2014. Chemistry. Assembly and disassembly of ferrocene-based nanotubes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344, 482–483.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mlynarski SN, Schuster CH, Morken JP. 2014. Asymmetric synthesis from terminal alkenes by cascades of diboration and cross-coupling. Nature, 505, 386–390.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Borgia A, Borgia MB, Bugge K, Kissling VM, Heidarsson PO, Fernandes CB, Sottini A, Soranno A, Buholzer KJ, Nettels D, Kragelund BB, Best RB, Schuler B. 2018. Extreme disorder in an ultrahigh-affinity protein complex. Nature, 555, 61–66.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hersent O, Petit J-P, Gurle D. 2005. Beyond VoIP Protocols. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Lane J. 2012. Foundation Website Creation with HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript. Apress: Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Fujiwara H, Araki Y, Sato Y, Takakura M, Nakamura M, Mizumoto Y, Horie A, Kanzaki H, Mori T. 2016. Role of Circulating Blood Cells in Maternal Tissue Remodeling and Embryo-Maternal Cross Talk, in Uterine Endometrial Function, Kanzaki H, Editor. Springer Japan: Tokyo. p. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasite.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2017. Smart Female Guppies With Bigger Brains Choose More Attractive Mates. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Space Exploration: Cost, Schedule, and Performance of NASA’s Galileo Mission to Jupiter. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dovale MJ. 2013. Postwar japan’s hybrid modernity of in-betweenness: Historical, literary, and social perspectives, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. 2000. Maryland and Princeton Gain Final With Routs. New York Times, D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [4,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleParasite
ISSN (print)1252-607X
ISSN (online)1776-1042

Other styles