How to format your references using the Parasite citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasite. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oka T. 2015. Vibrational dynamics. Taming CH₅+, the “enfant terrible” of chemical structures. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347, 1313–1314.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lybarger SR, Sandkvist M. 2004. Microbiology. A hitchhiker’s guide to type IV secretion. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304, 1122–1123.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berson DM, Dunn FA, Takao M. 2002. Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295, 1070–1073.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Krams IA, Skrinda I, Kecko S, Moore FR, Krama T, Kaasik A, Meija L, Lietuvietis V, Rantala MJ. 2014. Body height affects the strength of immune response in young men, but not young women. Scientific Reports, 4, 6223.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Münch V. 2009. Patente, Marken, Design von A bis Z. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH: D-69451 Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Bahns D, Bauer W, Witt I, Eds. 2016. Quantization, PDEs, and Geometry: The Interplay of Analysis and Mathematical Physics. 1st ed. 2016 Springer International Publishing: Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Jakhu RS, Pelton JN. 2014. Licensing, Registration, and Frequency Use Regulation, in Small Satellites and Their Regulation, Pelton JN, Editor. Springer: New York, NY. p. 49–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasite.

Blog post
Hamilton K. 2016. The Problem With Reinforced Concrete. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Information Technology Workers: Employment and Starting Salaries. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ray SJ. 2017. Departmentalized Classroom Environments Versus Traditional Classroom Environments in Second Through Fourth Grades: A Quantitative Analysis, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Olmsted SA. 1936. DEPUTY MAYOR IDEA NOT NEW; Tammany Objection to the Charter Plan Regarded as Baseless. New York Times, BOOKS20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [4,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleParasite
ISSN (print)1252-607X
ISSN (online)1776-1042

Other styles