How to format your references using the Parasite citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasite. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marchetti MC. 2015. Soft matter: Frictionless fluids from bacterial teamwork. Nature, 525, 37–39.
A journal article with 2 authors
Doak DF, Morris WF. 2010. Demographic compensation and tipping points in climate-induced range shifts. Nature, 467, 959–962.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shah AK, Mullainathan S, Shafir E. 2012. Some consequences of having too little. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338, 682–685.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Oudejans RR, Verheijen R, Bakker FC, Gerrits JC, Steinbrückner M, Beek PJ. 2000. Errors in judging “offside” in football. Nature, 404, 33.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stavetski EJ. 2009. Managing Hedge Fund Managers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gdoutos EE, Ed. 2007. Experimental Analysis of Nano and Engineering Materials and Structures: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Alexandroupolis, Greece, July 1–6, 2007. Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Leoni M de, Marrella A, Russo A. 2011. Process-Aware Information Systems for Emergency Management, in Towards a Service-Based Internet. ServiceWave 2010 Workshops: International Workshops, OCS, EMSOA, SMART, and EDBPM 2010, Ghent, Belgium, December 13-15, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Cezon M, Wolfsthal Y, Editors. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg. p. 50–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasite.

Blog post
Carpineti A. 2017. Study Shows Evidence Supporting The Idea Of A Holographic Universe. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Geographic Information Systems: Challenges to Effective Data Sharing. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gwaduri E. 2009. A personal narrative: Struggles and experiences of acculturation as a Pakistani Shia Muslim while battling immigration, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. 2016. Affordability in a Bucolic Setting. New York Times, RE17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,4,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleParasite
ISSN (print)1252-607X
ISSN (online)1776-1042

Other styles