How to format your references using the Palynology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palynology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Loder N. 2000. UK labs impeded by old equipment. Nature. 405(6786):496.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lauder JM, Oppenheim R. 2001. Obituary. Viktor Hamburger (1900-2001). Nature. 412(6846):496.
A journal article with 3 authors
Magnuson JJ, Safina C, Sissenwine MP. 2001. Ecology and conservation. Whose fish are they anyway? Science. 293(5533):1267–1268.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Rappas M, Schumacher J, Beuron F, Niwa H, Bordes P, Wigneshweraraj S, Keetch CA, Robinson CV, Buck M, Zhang X. 2005. Structural insights into the activity of enhancer-binding proteins. Science. 307(5717):1972–1975.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brook MV. 2011. Ultrasonic Inspection Technology Development and Search Unit Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Arnold R, editor. 2013. The Universalism of Human Rights. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Barbosa L, Portilho F, Wilkinson J, Dubeux V. 2013. Youth, Consumption and Citizenship. In: Schrader U, Fricke V, Doyle D, Thoresen VW, editors. Enabling Responsible Living. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; p. 47–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palynology.

Blog post
Hale T. 2016. Nobel Prizes Kick Off With Announcement Of Medicine Award. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Chapter 1 Accountability: Greater Focus on Program Goals Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Romanek JL. 2009. The relative influence of sensation seeking and normal narcissism on academic cheating in emerging adults [Doctoral dissertation]. Scottsdale, AZ: Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. 2017. TV Drama Takes Arabs Inside Life Under ISIS. New York Times.:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Loder 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Loder 2000; Lauder and Oppenheim 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lauder and Oppenheim 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Rappas et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalynology
ISSN (print)0191-6122
ISSN (online)1558-9188

Other styles