How to format your references using the Palynology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palynology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kamionkowski M. 2009. Astrophysics: Gravity ripples chased. Nature. 460(7258):964–965.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith NGC, Eyre-Walker A. 2002. Adaptive protein evolution in Drosophila. Nature. 415(6875):1022–1024.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alvarado D, Klein DE, Lemmon MA. 2009. ErbB2 resembles an autoinhibited invertebrate epidermal growth factor receptor. Nature. 461(7261):287–291.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Murakami S, Nakashima R, Yamashita E, Yamaguchi A. 2002. Crystal structure of bacterial multidrug efflux transporter AcrB. Nature. 419(6907):587–593.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khoei AR. 2014. Extended Finite Element Method. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kraas F, Aggarwal S, Coy M, Mertins G, editors. 2014. Megacities: Our Global Urban Future. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Razzaque MS. 2012. FGF23, Klotho and Vitamin D Interactions: In: Kuro-o M, editor. Endocrine FGFs and Klothos. New York, NY: Springer US; p. 84–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palynology.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2014. How Horseshoe Crab Blood Saves Millions Of Lives. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. State Department: Tourist Visa Processing Backlogs Persist at U.S. Consulates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramey JD. 2013. A Case Study: Achievement Studies of Persistent, Transitional, and Transient Populations within the Blitz Program Model at a Large Midwestern Elementary School [Doctoral dissertation]. St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. 2011. Paterno at the End: Far From the Coach We Thought We Knew. New York Times.:B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kamionkowski 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Smith and Eyre-Walker 2002; Kamionkowski 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith and Eyre-Walker 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Murakami et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalynology
ISSN (print)0191-6122
ISSN (online)1558-9188

Other styles