How to format your references using the Palynology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palynology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knight J. 2001. Physical sciences lose ground as US shifts towards biology. Nature. 412(6844):259.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pörtner HO, Farrell AP. 2008. Ecology. Physiology and climate change. Science. 322(5902):690–692.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cowen RK, Paris CB, Srinivasan A. 2006. Scaling of connectivity in marine populations. Science. 311(5760):522–527.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Dexter JP, Tamme MB, Lind CH, Collins E-MS. 2014. On-chip immobilization of planarians for in vivo imaging. Sci Rep. 4:6388.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stephans RA. 2004. System Safety for the 21 st Century. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bonivento C, Marconi L, Rossi C, Isidori A, editors. 2007. Advances in Control Theory and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gärtner B, Matoušek J. 2012. Duality and Cone Programming. In: Matousek J, editor. Approximation Algorithms and Semidefinite Programming. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; p. 45–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palynology.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2015. Why Did Dinosaurs Avoid The Tropics For So Long? IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Core Competencies for Financial System Analysts in the Federal Government (Exposure Draft). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amini B. 2015. Linear Matrix Inequality Method for Periodic Systems [Doctoral dissertation]. Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM, Koblin J. 2017. For Fox News, Life After Bill O’Reilly Will Feature Tucker Carlson. New York Times.:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knight 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Knight 2001; Pörtner & Farrell 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pörtner & Farrell 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Dexter et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalynology
ISSN (print)0191-6122
ISSN (online)1558-9188

Other styles