How to format your references using the Palynology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palynology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marshall E. 2008. Clinical trials and tribulations. Lemons, oranges, and complexity. Introduction. Science. 322(5899):209.
A journal article with 2 authors
Helffrich GR, Wood BJ. 2001. The Earth’s mantle. Nature. 412(6846):501–507.
A journal article with 3 authors
Franco A, Malhotra N, Simonovits G. 2014. Social science. Publication bias in the social sciences: unlocking the file drawer. Science. 345(6203):1502–1505.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Li D, Yan Z, Lu L, Jiang H, Wang W. 2014. Pleiotropy of the de novo-originated gene MDF1. Sci Rep. 4:7280.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tschirhart M, Bielefeld W. 2012. Managing Nonprofit Organizations. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kolvekar S, Pilegaard H, editors. 2016. Chest Wall Deformities and Corrective Procedures. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hara H, Kato Y, Ichinose G, Irle S. 2012. QM/MD Simulations of High-Temperature SWCNT Self-capping. In: Zeng J, Zhang R-Q, Treutlein HR, editors. Quantum Simulations of Materials and Biological Systems. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; p. 53–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palynology.

Blog post
Davis J. 2017. World’s First Fluorescent Frog Discovered In The Amazon. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Systemwide Education Reform: Federal Leadership Could Facilitate District-Level Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Remon G. 2010. Not Here Not Now [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cave D. 2017. Making History With Breast-Fed Meal in Parliament. New York Times.:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marshall 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Helffrich and Wood 2001; Marshall 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Helffrich and Wood 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalynology
ISSN (print)0191-6122
ISSN (online)1558-9188

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