How to format your references using the International Journal of Refrigeration citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Refrigeration. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Montgomery, M.H., 2008. Astronomy. The pulse of distant stars. Science 322, 536–537.
A journal article with 2 authors
Santolík, O., Chum, J., 2009. Planetary science. The origin of plasmaspheric hiss. Science 324, 729–730.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng, R.-L., Zhang, H., Jiang, W.-L., 2014. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha 308G>A polymorphism and risk of rheumatic heart disease: a meta-analysis. Sci. Rep. 4, 4731.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Johnson, D.M., Liebhold, A.M., Tobin, P.C., Bjørnstad, O.N., 2006. Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth. Nature 444, 361–363.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
bauforumstahl e.V., 2011. Beispiele zur Bemessung von Stahltragwerken nach DIN EN 1993 Eurocode 3. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Müller, A.H.E., Schmidt, H.-W. (Eds.), 2010. Complex Macromolecular Systems II, Advances in Polymer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Smith, M.K., French, J.L., Kowalski, K.G., Hutmacher, M.M., Ewy, W., 2011. Decision-Making in Drug Development: Application of a Model Based Framework for Assessing Trial Performance, in: Kimko, H.H.C., Peck, C.C. (Eds.), Clinical Trial Simulations: Applications and Trends, AAPS Advances in the Pharmaceutical Sciences Series. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 61–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Refrigeration.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2015. The Mental Capacity To Recognize Language Is Not Unique To Humans [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015. Space Acquisitions: GAO Assessment of DOD Responsive Launch Report (No. GAO-16-156R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Escobedo, N.L., 2014. A continuing bonds grief support group for Latinas who have lost a child: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E., 1998. Bikes That Roll Toward Jobs. New York Times 149.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Montgomery, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Montgomery, 2008; Santolík and Chum, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Santolík and Chum, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Johnson et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Refrigeration
AbbreviationInt. J. Refrig.
ISSN (print)0140-7007
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Building and Construction

Other styles