How to format your references using the International Journal of Refrigeration citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Refrigeration. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vijayan, M., 2001. Obituary. G.N. Ramachandran (1922-2001). Nature 411, 544.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dalton, R., Abbott, A., 2000. Hawaii reaches for the stars with astronomy master plan. Nature 405, 872.
A journal article with 3 authors
Webster, A.J., Payne, R.J.H., Pagel, M., 2003. Molecular phylogenies link rates of evolution and speciation. Science 301, 478.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lu, X., Huang, B., Zheng, J., Tao, Y., Yu, W., Tang, L., Zhu, R., Li, S., Li, L., 2014. Decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery. Sci. Rep. 4, 7070.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, H.H., 2011. Oracle Database Performance and Scalability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ramaekers, S., 2012. The Claims of Parenting: Reasons, Responsibility and Society, Contemporary Philosophies and Theories in Education. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Schmauder, S., Mishnaevsky, L., Jr, 2008. Complex, Graded and Interpenetrating Microstructures, in: Mishnaevsky, L. (Ed.), Micromechanics and Nanosimulation of Metals and Composites: Advanced Methods and Theoretical Concepts. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 213–310.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Refrigeration.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Human Embryos Grown In Lab For Record Period Of Time [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. Pipeline Safety: Systematic Process Needed to Evaluate Outcomes of Research and Development Program (No. GAO-03-746). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhang, X., 2012. Electroweak interactions and the delta resonance in a chiral effective field theory for nuclei (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017. An Upstart Relishes, and Rues, a Showcase. New York Times B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vijayan, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Dalton and Abbott, 2000; Vijayan, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dalton and Abbott, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Lu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Refrigeration
AbbreviationInt. J. Refrig.
ISSN (print)0140-7007
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Building and Construction

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