How to format your references using the International Journal of Refrigeration citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Refrigeration. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ehrlich, P.R., 2010. Retrospective. Stephen Schneider (1945-2010). Science 329, 776.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wellik, D.M., Capecchi, M.R., 2003. Hox10 and Hox11 genes are required to globally pattern the mammalian skeleton. Science 301, 363–367.
A journal article with 3 authors
Heiling, A.M., Herberstein, M.E., Chittka, L., 2003. Pollinator attraction: Crab-spiders manipulate flower signals. Nature 421, 334.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Guo, B., Zhai, D., Cabezas, E., Welsh, K., Nouraini, S., Satterthwait, A.C., Reed, J.C., 2003. Humanin peptide suppresses apoptosis by interfering with Bax activation. Nature 423, 456–461.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghaye, T., 2008. Developing the Reflective Healthcare Team. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Gairing, M., Savani, R. (Eds.), 2016. Algorithmic Game Theory: 9th International Symposium, SAGT 2016, Liverpool, UK, September 19–21, 2016, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Garde-Hansen, J., McEwen, L., Jones, O., 2016. Towards a Memo-Techno-Ecology: Mediating Memories of Extreme Flooding in Resilient Communities, in: Hajek, A., Lohmeier, C., Pentzold, C. (Eds.), Memory in a Mediated World: Remembrance and Reconstruction. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 55–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Refrigeration.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Fossil Collecting Should Be For Everyone – Not Just Academics [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1975. Inefficient Management of F-14 Spare Parts (No. PSAD-75-70). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kafi, W., 2013. The effects of patient demographic variables on cesarean section-related surgical site infection rates (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2017. Sam Shepard, Whose Plays Forged a New Frontier, Dies at 73. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ehrlich, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Ehrlich, 2010; Wellik and Capecchi, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wellik and Capecchi, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Guo et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Refrigeration
AbbreviationInt. J. Refrig.
ISSN (print)0140-7007
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Building and Construction

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