How to format your references using the Transplantation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transplantation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schneider T. Climate modelling: uncertainty in climate-sensitivity estimates. Nature 2007; 446: E1; discussion E2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fisher B, Costanza R. Environmental policy: regional commitment to reducing emissions. Nature 2005; 438: 301.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blüher M, Kahn BB, Kahn CR. Extended longevity in mice lacking the insulin receptor in adipose tissue. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2003; 299: 572.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
Lekshmy PR, Midhun M, Ramesh R, Jani RA. 18O depletion in monsoon rain relates to large scale organized convection rather than the amount of rainfall. Scientific reports 2014; 4: 5661.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pickles J, Smith A, Begg R, Buček M, Roukova P, Pástor R. Articulations of Capital. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
Bastin G. Stability and Boundary Stabilization of 1-D Hyperbolic Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Krus P. Design Space Configuration for Minimizing Design Information Entropy. In: Chakrabarti A, ed. ICoRD’15 – Research into Design Across Boundaries Volume 1: Theory, Research Methodology, Aesthetics, Human Factors and Education. New Delhi: Springer India, 2015: 51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transplantation.

Blog post
Fang J. Competing Parasites Sabotage Each Other [Internet]. IFLScience2015; [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Special Education: More Flexible Spending Requirement Could Mitigate Unintended Consequences While Protecting Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Laffier J. A qualitative evaluation of the role of artistic expression in psychological empowerment of bullying victims. 2015;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY J. New York State to Cover Tuition in Cuomo Plan. New York Times2017; : A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleTransplantation
ISSN (print)0041-1337
ISSN (online)1534-0608

Other styles