How to format your references using the Transplantation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transplantation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gravitz L. Diagnostics: The early bird. Nature 2011; 480: S36.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dennell R, Roebroeks W. An Asian perspective on early human dispersal from Africa. Nature 2005; 438: 1099.
A journal article with 3 authors
Seymour RS, White CR, Gibernau M. Environmental biology: heat reward for insect pollinators. Nature 2003; 426: 243.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
Hillman TR, Yamauchi T, Choi W et al. Digital optical phase conjugation for delivering two-dimensional images through turbid media. Scientific reports 2013; 3: 1909.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liebhart R, Chandramouli D, Wong C, Merkel J. LTE for Public Safety. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
Tamil Selvan S. Introduction to Nanotheranostics. Singapore: Springer, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Kono S, Aihara K. Prototype of Decision Support Based on Estimation of Group Status Using Conversation Analysis. In: Yamamoto S, ed. Human Interface and the Management of Information: Applications and Services: 18th International Conference, HCI International 2016 Toronto, Canada, July 17-22, 2016. Proceedings, Part II. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016: 40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transplantation.

Blog post
Fang J. Island Foxes May Be The Least Genetically Variable Wild Animals [Internet]. IFLScience2016; [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Environmental Protection: EPA’s Science and Technology Funds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bryan JD. Team development social networking and its impact on the encouragement of spiritual leadership. 2009;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Novick SM. Where Po’ Boys Will Be Po’ Boys. New York Times2016; : LI8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleTransplantation
ISSN (print)0041-1337
ISSN (online)1534-0608

Other styles