How to format your references using the Paleobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paleobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kuypers, M. M. M. 2015: Microbiology: A division of labour combined. Nature 528:487–488.
A journal article with 2 authors
Colavita, A., and M. Tessier-Lavigne. 2003: A Neurexin-related protein, BAM-2, terminates axonal branches in C. elegans. Science (New York, N.Y.) 302:293–296.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, X., M. A. Schuler, and M. R. Berenbaum. 2002: Jasmonate and salicylate induce expression of herbivore cytochrome P450 genes. Nature 419:712–715.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gadjourova, Z., Y. G. Andreev, D. P. Tunstall, and P. G. Bruce. 2001: Ionic conductivity in crystalline polymer electrolytes. Nature 412:520–523.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Röpke, G. 2013: Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, p.
An edited book
2010: Link Mining: Models, Algorithms, and Applications. in P. S. Yu, J. Han, and C. Faloutsos, eds. Springer, New York, NY, p.
A chapter in an edited book
Cheli, F., and G. Diana. 2015: Dynamical Systems Subjected to Force Fields. Pp.413–553 in G. Diana, ed. Advanced Dynamics of Mechanical Systems. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paleobiology.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2016: Is Middle America Due For A Catastrophic Earthquake?. IFLScience. Downloaded from on 30 October 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001: Information Technology: Architecture Needed to Guide Modernization of DOD’s Financial Operations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, p.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez, N. M. 2010: The influence of formal and informal support on the quality of life of individuals with a severe mental illness.Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CApp.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. 2011: Living With the Sweet Smell of Sap. New York Times:C25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kuypers 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Colavita and Tessier-Lavigne 2003; Kuypers 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Colavita and Tessier-Lavigne 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Gadjourova et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePaleobiology
ISSN (print)0094-8373
ISSN (online)1938-5331
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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