How to format your references using the Paleobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paleobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Payne, M. R. 2013: Fisheries: climate change at the dinner table. Nature 497:320–321.
A journal article with 2 authors
Das, S., and A. Kumar. 2014: Formation and post-formation dynamics of bacterial biofilm streamers as highly viscous liquid jets. Scientific reports 4:7126.
A journal article with 3 authors
Loudon, J. C., N. D. Mathur, and P. A. Midgley. 2002: Charge-ordered ferromagnetic phase in La(0.5)Ca(0.5)MnO3. Nature 420:797–800.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Titov, V., A. B. Rabinovich, H. O. Mofjeld, R. E. Thomson, and F. I. González. 2005: The global reach of the 26 December 2004 Sumatra tsunami. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309:2045–2048.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perez, A. 2016: VoLTE and ViLTE. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, p.
An edited book
2007: Androgen Excess Disorders in Women: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Other Disorders. in R. Azziz, J. E. Nestler, and D. Dewailly, eds. Contemporary Endocrinology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, p.
A chapter in an edited book
Valocchi, A. J. 2012: Hydrogeochemical Models. Pp.77–116 in P. K. Kitanidis and P. L. McCarty, eds. Delivery and Mixing in the Subsurface: Processes and Design Principles for In Situ Remediation. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paleobiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014: Neurons In Your Skin Do Math. IFLScience. Downloaded from on 30 October 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992: Federal Research: Assessment of the Financial Audit for SEMATECH’s Activities in 1991. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, p.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Datta, A. 2017: Speech Synthesis Using Unsupervised Learning.Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CApp.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. 2005: Justices Explore U.S. Authority Over States on Assisted Suicide. New York Times:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Payne 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Payne 2013; Das and Kumar 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Das and Kumar 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Titov et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePaleobiology
ISSN (print)0094-8373
ISSN (online)1938-5331
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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