How to format your references using the Paleobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paleobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cheung, F. 2011: Modern TCM: Enter the clinic. Nature 480:S94-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ye, B., and N. Cramer. 2012: Chiral cyclopentadienyl ligands as stereocontrolling element in asymmetric C-H functionalization. Science (New York, N.Y.) 338:504–506.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ince, D. C., L. Hatton, and J. Graham-Cumming. 2012: The case for open computer programs. Nature 482:485–488.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yue, Q., S. Xiong, D. Cai, Z. Wu, and X. Zhang. 2014: Facile and quantitative electrochemical detection of yeast cell apoptosis. Scientific reports 4:4373.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rahman, R. O. A., R. Z. Rakhimov, N. R. Rakhimova, and M. I. Ojovan. 2014: Cementitious Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, p.
An edited book
2005: Self-Stabilizing Systems: 7th International Symposium, SSS 2005, Barcelona, Spain, October 26-27, 2005. Proceedings. in S. Tixeuil and T. Herman, eds. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Vol. 3764. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, p.
A chapter in an edited book
Köpf, B., and H. Mantel. 2006: Eliminating Implicit Information Leaks by Transformational Typing and Unification. Pp.47–62 in T. Dimitrakos, F. Martinelli, P. Y. A. Ryan, and S. Schneider, eds. Formal Aspects in Security and Trust: Thrid International Workshop, FAST 2005, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, July 18-19, 2005, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paleobiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015: New Mapping Effort To Help Battle Lyme Disease. IFLScience. Downloaded from on 30 October 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990: Supplemental Student Loans: Who Are the Largest Lenders? U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, p.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, C. 2010: A psychoeducational support group for Vietnamese American family caregivers of stroke survivors: Grant writing thesis proposal.Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CApp.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belson, K. 2014: Coaxing Fire and Police Staffs in Arizona to Cut Own Pensions. New York Times:A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cheung 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Cheung 2011; Ye and Cramer 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ye and Cramer 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Yue et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePaleobiology
ISSN (print)0094-8373
ISSN (online)1938-5331
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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