How to format your references using the Paleobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paleobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Triendl, R. 2000: Reactor refit ignites debate on Japan’s fusion strategy. Nature 407:549.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ticozzi, F., and L. Viola. 2014: Quantum resources for purification and cooling: fundamental limits and opportunities. Scientific reports 4:5192.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lassus, P., X. Opitz-Araya, and Y. Lazebnik. 2002: Requirement for caspase-2 in stress-induced apoptosis before mitochondrial permeabilization. Science (New York, N.Y.) 297:1352–1354.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pinkse, P. W., T. Fischer, P. Maunz, and G. Rempe. 2000: Trapping an atom with single photons. Nature 404:365–368.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benslama, M., W. Kiamouche, and H. Batatia. 2015: Connections Management Strategies in Satellite Cellular Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, p.
An edited book
2010: Mind the Gap: Tracing the Origins of Human Universals. in P. M. Kappeler and J. Silk, eds. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, p.
A chapter in an edited book
Tremblay, V. J., and C. H. Tremblay. 2012: Perfect Competition and Market Imperfections. Pp.123–143 in C. H. Tremblay, ed. New Perspectives on Industrial Organization: With Contributions from Behavioral Economics and Game Theory. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paleobiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015: Spread Of Multi-Drug Resistant Typhoid Threatens Public Health. IFLScience. Downloaded from on 30 October 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977: Indian Education in the Public School System Needs More Direction from the Congress. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, p.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lizarraga, D. 2017: Effects of large inedible particles on the feeding performance of echinodem larvae.Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CApp.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Williams, J. 2017: Feeling Blah? There’s a Book About That. New York Times:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Triendl 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Triendl 2000; Ticozzi and Viola 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ticozzi and Viola 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Pinkse et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePaleobiology
ISSN (print)0094-8373
ISSN (online)1938-5331
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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