How to format your references using the Clinical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Nies DH. Biochemistry. How cells control zinc homeostasis. Science 2007;317:1695–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Brucker RM, Bordenstein SR. Response to Comment on “The hologenomic basis of speciation: gut bacteria cause hybrid lethality in the genus Nasonia.” Science 2014;345:1011.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Hovenden MJ, Newton PCD, Wills KE. Seasonal not annual rainfall determines grassland biomass response to carbon dioxide. Nature 2014;511:583–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Ahel I, Ahel D, Matsusaka T, Clark AJ, Pines J, Boulton SJ, et al. Poly(ADP-ribose)-binding zinc finger motifs in DNA repair/checkpoint proteins. Nature 2008;451:81–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Smith RA. Virgil. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
[1]
Ikeda S, Kato HK, Ohtake F, Tsutsui Y, editors. Behavioral Interactions, Markets, and Economic Dynamics: Topics in Behavioral Economics. 1st ed. 2016. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Knobelspiesse K, Cairns B, Jethva H, Kacenelenbogen M, Segal-Rosenheimer M, Torres O. Remote sensing of above cloud aerosols. In: Kokhanovsky AA, editor. Light Scattering Reviews 9: Light Scattering and Radiative Transfer, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015, p. 167–210.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Oncology.

Blog post
[1]
Hale T. Watch Dubai’s New Squad Of Aquatic Jetpack Firefighters. IFLScience 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/watch-dubais-new-squad-of-aquatic-jetpack-firefighters/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Inventory Management: Problems in Accountability and Security of DOD Supply Inventories. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Young W. Diamagnetism of a supersonic rotating magnetized plasma. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Shpigel B. Pursuing Gold, Not Platitudes. New York Times 2016:SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Oncology
AbbreviationClin. Oncol. (R Coll. Radiol.)
ISSN (print)0936-6555
ScopeOncology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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