How to format your references using the Clinical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Berry M. Making waves in physics. Three wave singularities from the miraculous 1830s. Nature 2000;403:21.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Rivkin RB, Legendre L. Biogenic carbon cycling in the upper ocean: effects of microbial respiration. Science 2001;291:2398–400.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Gilestro GF, Tononi G, Cirelli C. Widespread changes in synaptic markers as a function of sleep and wakefulness in Drosophila. Science 2009;324:109–12.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Willhoft O, Ghoneim M, Lin C-L, Chua EYD, Wilkinson M, Chaban Y, et al. Structure and dynamics of the yeast SWR1-nucleosome complex. Science 2018;362.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Pederson LD. Dialectical Behavior Therapy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
[1]
Dudoit S. Multiple Testing Procedures with Applications to Genomics. New York, NY: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Kari J. Cellular Automata, the Collatz Conjecture and Powers of 3/2. In: Yen H-C, Ibarra OH, editors. Developments in Language Theory: 16th International Conference, DLT 2012, Taipei, Taiwan, August 14-17, 2012. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 40–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Oncology.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Self-Building 3D Printed Bricks Hint At Future Without Assembly Lines. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/self-building-3d-printed-bricks-hint-future-without-assembly-lines/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. China: U.S. and European Union Arms Sales Since the 1989 Embargoes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Pradhan SH. User Interface Design, Database Connectivity, and Security in Fortified Cards. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Kenigsberg B. Film Series. New York Times 2017:C22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Oncology
AbbreviationClin. Oncol. (R Coll. Radiol.)
ISSN (print)0936-6555
ScopeOncology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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