How to format your references using the Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D.: A debatable proposition. Nature. 451, 621 (2008)
A journal article with 2 authors
Godula, K., Sames, D.: C-H bond functionalization in complex organic synthesis. Science. 312, 67–72 (2006)
A journal article with 3 authors
Guilderson, T.P., Reimer, P.J., Brown, T.A.: Geoscience. The boon and bane of radiocarbon dating. Science. 307, 362–364 (2005)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ichiki, K., Takahashi, K., Ohno, H., Hanayama, H., Sugiyama, N.: Cosmological magnetic field: a fossil of density perturbations in the early universe. Science. 311, 827–829 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kushner, R., Lawrence, V., Kumar, S.: Practical Manual of Clinical Obesity. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford (2013)
An edited book
Deng, X., Graham, F.C. eds: Internet and Network Economics: Third International Workshop, WINE 2007, San Diego, CA, USA, December 12-14, 2007. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Lange, C., Kuchenbuch, A.: Integrated Controlling Based on Material and Energy Flow Analysis — A Case Study in Foundry Industries. In: Wagner, B. and Enzler, S. (eds.) Material Flow Management: Improving Cost Efficiency and Environmental Performance. pp. 91–129. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg (2006)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations.

Blog post
Davis, J.: Amateur Bodybuilder Treated After Injecting Himself With Coconut Oil,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: The A-76 Study at the NOAA National Climatic Data Center Could Have Been Compromised by the Disclosure of Certain Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1985)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Razo, S.I.: Parenting practices of Latina mothers and children’s behavior outcomes, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S.: Fame on the Half Shell, (2009)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCalculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations
AbbreviationCalc. Var. Partial Differ. Equ.
ISSN (print)0944-2669
ISSN (online)1432-0835
Applied Mathematics

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