How to format your references using the Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P.: Out in the cold. Nature. 421, 95 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Philpotts, A.R., Dickson, L.D.: The formation of plagioclase chains during convective transfer in basaltic magma. Nature. 406, 59–61 (2000)
A journal article with 3 authors
Staver, A.C., Archibald, S., Levin, S.A.: The global extent and determinants of savanna and forest as alternative biome states. Science. 334, 230–232 (2011)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hochberg, G.K.A., Shepherd, D.A., Marklund, E.G., Santhanagoplan, I., Degiacomi, M.T., Laganowsky, A., Allison, T.M., Basha, E., Marty, M.T., Galpin, M.R., Struwe, W.B., Baldwin, A.J., Vierling, E., Benesch, J.L.P.: Structural principles that enable oligomeric small heat-shock protein paralogs to evolve distinct functions. Science. 359, 930–935 (2018)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Speight, J.G.: Rules of Thumb for Petroleum Engineers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2017)
An edited book
D’Alessio, S. ed: Inclusive Education in Italy: A Critical Analysis of the Policy of Integrazione Scolastica. SensePublishers, Rotterdam (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Kidd, E., Grigsby, P.: The Use of Positron Emission Tomographic Imaging for Image-Guided Therapy. In: Viswanathan, A.N., Kirisits, C., Erickson, B.E., and Pötter, R. (eds.) Gynecologic Radiation Therapy: Novel Approaches to Image-Guidance and Management. pp. 41–48. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: How Citizen Scientists Discovered A Giant Cluster Of Galaxies,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Internet Infrastructure: Challenges in Developing a Public/Private Recovery Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2006)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lazor, D.L.: “Festen”: A celebration (of the imagination!), (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowen, T.: A Slowdown That Silicon Valley Doesn’t Believe, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCalculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations
AbbreviationCalc. Var. Partial Differ. Equ.
ISSN (print)0944-2669
ISSN (online)1432-0835
Applied Mathematics

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