How to format your references using the Palaeontologia Electronica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeontologia Electronica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bonetta, L. 2006. April 27. Gene expression: an expression of interest. Nature 440:1233–1237.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yeston, J. and Coontz, R. 2009. August 7. Industrial chemistry. Chemistry writ large. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.) 325:691.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, M., Butka, E. and Wang, X. 2014. October 10. Comprehensive quantification of triacylglycerols in soybean seeds by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with multiple neutral loss scans. Scientific reports 4:6581.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Kim, H., Terazono, H., Takei, H. and Yasuda, K. 2014. September 15. Cup-shaped superparamagnetic hemispheres for size-selective cell filtration. Scientific reports 4:6362.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Speight, J.G. and Foote, R. 2011. April 11. Ethics in Science and Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ehrig, H., Rensink, A., Rozenberg, G. and Schürr, A. (Eds.). 2010. Graph Transformations: 5th International Conference, ICGT 2010, Enschede, The Netherlands, September 27–October 2, 2010. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science6372. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kornfilt, J. 2009. DOM and Two Types of DSM in Turkish, p. 79–111. In Hoop, H. de and Swart, P. de (eds.), Differential Subject Marking. Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeontologia Electronica.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. June 18. . IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. July 29. Career and Technical Education: Surveys to State Directors of Career and Technical Education (GAO-09-737SP, July 2009), an E-supplement to GAO-09-683. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alsobrook, J.A. 2013. . Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Medina, J., Pérez-Peña, R., Schmidt, M.S. and Goodstein, L. 2015. December 3. Arms Stockpile Is Found in Home of Two Suspects. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bonetta 2006 April 27. ).
This sentence cites two references (Bonetta 2006 April 27. ; Yeston and Coontz 2009 August 7. ).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yeston and Coontz 2009 August 7. )
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al. 2014 September 15. )

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeontologia Electronica
AbbreviationPalaeontol. Electronica
ISSN (print)1094-8074
ISSN (online)1935-3952

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