How to format your references using the Palaeontologia Electronica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeontologia Electronica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koen, D. 2004. January 8. Nuts and bolts: career journals. Nature 427:180.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mochida, S. and Hunt, T. 2007. September 20. Calcineurin is required to release Xenopus egg extracts from meiotic M phase. Nature 449:336–340.
A journal article with 3 authors
Colombo, M.G., Franzoni, C. and Rossi-Lamastra, C. 2015. June 12. ENTREPRENEURSHIP. Cash from the crowd. Science (New York, N.Y.) 348:1201–1202.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Difilippantonio, M.J., Zhu, J., Chen, H.T., Meffre, E., Nussenzweig, M.C., Max, E.E., Ried, T. and Nussenzweig, A. 2000. March 30. DNA repair protein Ku80 suppresses chromosomal aberrations and malignant transformation. Nature 404:510–514.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sigee, D.C. 2005. June 27. Freshwater Microbiology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Kleiman, J.I. (Ed.). 2006. PROTECTION OF MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES FROM THE SPACE ENVIRONMENT. Space Technology Proceedings6. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Fiser, O. and Brazda, V. 2016. Experimental Validation of FSO Channel Models, p. 69–86. In Uysal, M., Capsoni, C., Ghassemlooy, Z., Boucouvalas, A., and Udvary, E. (eds.), Optical Wireless Communications: An Emerging Technology. Signals and Communication Technology. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeontologia Electronica.

Blog post


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1984. March 30. Participation in the National School Lunch Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Washburn, S.J. 2006. . Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, L. 2015. March 29. Going Into Marriage With Eyes Wide Open. New York Times ST17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koen 2004 January 8. ).
This sentence cites two references (Koen 2004 January 8. ; Mochida and Hunt 2007 September 20. ).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mochida and Hunt 2007 September 20. )
  • Three or more authors: (Difilippantonio et al. 2000 March 30. )

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeontologia Electronica
AbbreviationPalaeontol. Electronica
ISSN (print)1094-8074
ISSN (online)1935-3952

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