How to format your references using the Palaeontologia Electronica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeontologia Electronica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ballschmiter, K. 2002. August 16. Atmospheric chemistry. A marine source for alkyl nitrates. Science (New York, N.Y.) 297:1127–1128.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mbadugha, C.A. and Onakoya, A.O. 2014. December 23. The awareness, perceptions and experiences of primary open angle glaucoma patients in Lagos Nigeria. Scientific reports 4:7585.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chao, B.F., Wu, Y.H. and Li, Y.S. 2008. April 11. Impact of artificial reservoir water impoundment on global sea level. Science (New York, N.Y.) 320:212–214.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Tang, A.-M., Wang, W.-J., Mei, B., Hu, W.-L., Wu, M. and Liang, G.-L. 2013. DEVD-based hydrogelator minimizes cellular apoptosis induction. Scientific reports 3:1848.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eden, A.H. 2011. April 18. Codecharts. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ramos, C., Novais, P., Nihan, C.E. and Corchado Rodríguez, J.M. (Eds.). 2014. Ambient Intelligence - Software and Applications: 5th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing291. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Herren, M. 2014. The Globalisation of Death: Foreign Cemeteries in a Transnational Perspective, p. 59–79. In Ben-Canaan, D., Grüner, F., and Prodöhl, I. (eds.), Entangled Histories: The Transcultural Past of Northeast China. Transcultural Research – Heidelberg Studies on Asia and Europe in a Global Context. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeontologia Electronica.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2016. July 11. . IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. July 22. Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle: DOD Is Assessing Data on Worldwide Launch Market to Inform New Acquisition Strategy. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Macy, P. 2017. . Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman, W. 2014. November 18. President of Colombia Halts Peace Talks With Rebels After General Is Seized. New York Times A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ballschmiter 2002 August 16. ).
This sentence cites two references (Ballschmiter 2002 August 16. ; Mbadugha and Onakoya 2014 December 23. ).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mbadugha and Onakoya 2014 December 23. )
  • Three or more authors: (Tang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeontologia Electronica
AbbreviationPalaeontol. Electronica
ISSN (print)1094-8074
ISSN (online)1935-3952

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