How to format your references using the The European Physical Journal C citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The European Physical Journal C. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. S. Berkley, Nature 519, 263 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
1. T. Kingston and S. J. Rossiter, Nature 429, 654 (2004).
A journal article with 3 authors
1. S. L. Reiner, F. Sallusto, and A. Lanzavecchia, Science 317, 622 (2007).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. T. Matsuoka, P. E. Ahlberg, N. Kessaris, P. Iannarelli, U. Dennehy, W. D. Richardson, A. P. McMahon, and G. Koentges, Nature 436, 347 (2005).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. B. T. O’Hara and B. Malisow, CCSP® (ISC) 2® Certified Cloud Security Professional Official Study Guide (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017).
An edited book
1. S. Islam, Social Justice in the Globalization of Production: Labor, Gender, and the Environment Nexus (Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2015).
A chapter in an edited book
1. A. Kuznetsov and N. Mikheev, in Electroweak Processes in External Active Media, edited by N. Mikheev (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013), pp. 127–173.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The European Physical Journal C.

Blog post
1. E. Andrew, IFLScience (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office, Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Fiscal Year 2010 Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2010).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. J. D. Cleveland, A Comparative Study of Genetic Diversities among Exploited Flatfishes of the California Slope with Emphasis on Dover Sole (Microstomus Pacificus), Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. M. Corkery and B. Protess, New York Times A1 (2016).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe European Physical Journal C
AbbreviationEur. Phys. J. C Part. Fields
ISSN (print)1434-6044
ISSN (online)1434-6052
ScopeEngineering (miscellaneous)
Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Other styles