How to format your references using the EJC Supplements citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EJC Supplements. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lavé J. Earth science: Landscape inversion by stream piracy. Nature 2015;520:442–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Linkerhand M, Gros C. Generating functionals for autonomous latching dynamics in attractor relict networks. Sci Rep 2013;3:2042.
A journal article with 3 authors
Avitabile C, D’Andrea LD, Romanelli A. Circular Dichroism studies on the interactions of antimicrobial peptides with bacterial cells. Sci Rep 2014;4:4293.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lee H-Y, Kléber M, Hari L, Brault V, Suter U, Taketo MM, et al. Instructive role of Wnt/beta-catenin in sensory fate specification in neural crest stem cells. Science 2004;303:1020–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCallum H. Population Parameters: Estimation for Ecological Models. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Perbal A, Takigawa M, Perbal B, editors. CCN Proteins in Health and Disease: An Overview of the Fifth International Workshop on the CCN Family of Genes. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Duan H. Trust Building and Management for Online File Storage Service. In: Lee C, Seigneur J-M, Park JJ, Wagner RR, editors. Secure and Trust Computing, Data Management, and Applications: STA 2011 Workshops: IWCS 2011 and STAVE 2011, Loutraki, Greece, June 28-30, 2011. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 31–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EJC Supplements.

Blog post
Carpineti A. How Antarctica Became Frozen. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Judicial Space Follow-up. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morr R. Age Discrimination: Prejudice Suppression in the Selection Process. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: In Hindsight; Texas-Size Failure. New York Times 1992:111.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEJC Supplements
AbbreviationEJC Suppl.
ISSN (print)1359-6349
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles